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38th Evacuation Hospital
|The staff of Charlotte Memorial Hospital on the night of 8 April 1942, honored the commissioned Officers of the newly-formed 38th Evacuation Hospital at a dinner party. One week later the unit was activated at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.|
The 750-bed 38th Evacuation Hospital was officially activated on 15 April 1942 at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Personnel had already begun to form before the unit was formally activated; they were largely drawn from the Mecklenburg County Medical Society and Charlotte Memorial Hospital. Among them was a veteran, Dr. T. Preston White, a Lieutenant Colonel who had served with the Medical Department during the First World War. At the time of activation, White was the senior ranking officer within the organization, but orders received from the War Department (dated 21 March 1942) instructed the unit to form at Fort Bragg, where it was to assimilate the 41st Evacuation Hospital to bring the unit to T/O strength (as per T/O 8-232 –ed). As a result of this merge, Colonel Raymond W. Whittier was assigned as the Commanding Officer for the 38th Evacuation Hospital.
His first responsibility was to select an area in the vast Fort Bragg reservation to serve as the training home of the 38th. The location he finally selected was on the shore of Spring Lake; the facility comprised 17 large buildings, including the headquarters, kitchen, day rooms, barracks buildings and storerooms. All buildings were placed in readiness for occupancy on the day of activation. The unit’s Nurses were not to arrive for another two weeks, which meant extra time was available to prepare their quarters. Orders were finally issued on 24 April 1942, ordering 40 Nurses to active duty from the Fourth Corps Area Headquarters. Upon arrival at Fort Bragg however, the new members were placed on temporary duty at the Station Hospital pending movement to the 38th.
The period that followed was largely occupied with training and class room activities. All personnel received lectures in military courtesy, drill and tent pitching. Special classes were also organized for the senior ranks of the unit in mess management, logistics and transportation. Calisthenics were also arranged, and became a daily focus for many of the new recruits.
The 38th had been at Fort Bragg for six weeks when relatives of its personnel and friends of the senior staff sponsored a benefit performance for the unit. It was staged on the night of 27 May 1942, and was a complete sell-out. Bob Hope was the chief performer, and helped the organizers to raise a total of $3,108 which was gifted to Lt. Col. White as a contingency fund for Nurses and Enlisted Men in emergency situations.
|Colonel Raymond W. Whittier (right), Commanding Officer, with Major George T. Wood, Executive Officer.|
Shortly after the show, orders were received prescribing the 38th Evacuation Hospital to enter bivouac exercises on 9 June 1942. The purpose was to provide experience to the unit’s members of field life. The pitching and striking of tents was almost a daily task, and the personnel also ran a fully functional hospital mess at the site. All hospital and kitchen equipment was inspected on a regular basis, and several mile-long hikes were arranged each day. The period brought about many practical changes within the organization, as well as several structural arrangements. Two Nurses were transferred out of the 38th following marriage, while several Officers were transferred to other Corps areas. By 15 July 1942, the unit totalled 158 Enlisted Men (of the 318 called for by the Table of Organization), 44 Officers and 33 Nurses (instead of the 47 and 52 necessary, respectively).
As July progressed, a general sense of monotony began to develop among the Hospital’s personnel. Additional staff gradually began to arrive, and the unit was finally up to its required strength of 47 Officers, 52 Nurses and 318 Enlisted Men on 25 July 1942, with the arrival of additional men from the 134th Medical Regiment. The daily routine remained unchanged, and consisted primarily of calisthenics, drill and personal duties. All of this was to change suddenly on 21 July 1942 however, when the Commanding Officer received orders alerting the unit to transfer to the Fort Indiantown Gap Military Reservation (Staging Area primarily located in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania -ed). The orders received stated that this was to be a permanent change of station, and completed on 2 August 1942. The unit entrained at Fort Bragg in the late afternoon of 31 July. The outside temperature was extremely high, and the journey was most unpleasant.
During the final week at Fort Bragg, formal arrangements and restructuring had been completed. The following assignments of Officers were made:
|Col. Raymond W. Whittier (MC)||Commanding Officer|
|Maj. George T. Wood (MC)||Executive Officer|
|Capt. Alfred Yankauer, Jr.||Adjutant|
|Maj. Richard Z. Query, Jr.||Registrar|
|Capt. Otis Jones||Chaplain|
|Capt. Stanton W. Pickens||Mess Officer|
|Capt. William P. Medearis||Supply and Utilities Officer|
|Lt. Col. Thomas P. White||Chief of Medical Service|
|Major Paul W. Sanger||Chief of Surgical Service|
|Capt. Bernard Walker||Chief of Dental Service|
The unit arrived at the Staging Area on the morning of 2 August 1942 and its personnel and equipment were loaded for transportation to Section 13 of the Reservation. The next few days were largely spent preparing individual equipment and clothing for the imminent journey overseas. Inspections were carried out every night, and all immunizations and inoculations were administered. Movement orders, providing detailed instructions for embarking were issued 3 August from the New York Port of Embarkation.
At 0200 hours on the morning of 6 August the unit awoke and immediately boarded a train which took them to Jersey City, New Jersey. Upon arrival, ferries took the unit across to the 59th Street Pier and after a series of long marches and waits, the personnel finally boarded HMS Andres (33,000-ton British passenger ship –ed).
|11 of the 38th's Nurses are shown here in their dress uniforms soon after the unit's arrival in England. This photograph was taken at the Red Cross Club for service women in London.|
The ship set sail as soon as daylight broke, and within a few hours the staff of the 38th Evac were waving fond farewells to the Statue of Liberty. At this time, only a select few of the senior staff knew the destination for which the unit was headed – Liverpool, England.
The crossing was largely uneventful, but upon arrival in the waters of England, it was discovered that the ship was too large for the harbor’s berth, and so the vessel was anchored in the River Mersey. Several Merchant Navy tenders and ferries carried the personnel and equipment to the dockside.
Upon arrival in England, the Nurses boarded a train and after a long, overnight journey arrived at the 1st Medical Laboratory located in Salisbury, Wiltshire. The Officers and Enlisted Men were transported to the town of Huyton (approximately 10 miles from Liverpool, Transit Camp No. 3 –ed) in double-deck trains. After a three day stay here, the 38th marched the mile and a half to the Huyton railway station and boarded a train for Tidworth, Wiltshire. Upon arrival, a further march was made to the Tidworth Park Staging Area. A British Army Officer guided the personnel to their tentage in complete darkness. The following morning it was discovered that the tents used were British Army bell tents, and the uncomfortable mattresses were in fact filled with straw and triangular in shape. The inclement weather made the stay even more unpleasant!
On 10 September, the unit received orders to transfer to Taunton, Somerset, where it was to occupy and operate the Musgrove Military Park Hospital. The move was completed the same day. Upon arrival however, it was noted that facilities were available for the care of relatively few patients, and the time the unit was based there (until 5 October) was spent largely in the training of Enlisted Men in the care of the ill and in outfitting the new hospital.
The 38th’s Nurses rejoined the unit at Musgrove Park. One of the first and few casualties treated at the facility was an Enlisted Man who, in cleaning his rifle, inadvertently pulled the trigger causing the rifle to discharge through his toe. The stay was rather uneventful, and many of the Hospital’s personnel acquired bicycles, and regularly explored the English countryside.
|Capt. George Snyder, left, and Captain Stanton W. Pickens shortly after the 38th reached England, discuss their day's duties.|
Another change of station was made on 5 October 1942, when the unit was transferred to Norton Manor Camp Staging Area (Somerset, England –ed). Here, the process of calisthenics, drilling and lectures was revived. Ten days after the unit’s arrival, a new Commanding Officer was appointed in Lieutenant Colonel Rollin L. Bauchspies, MC; Col. Whittier was relieved due to ill health, and died soon afterward of heart disease. Under the Command of Lt. Col. Bauchspies, a reorganization of the Nursing staff was arranged, with 1st Lt. Bessie V. Fullbright assuming the role of Chief Nurse.
At 0500 hours on 23 October 1942, the unit entrained at Taunton for Avonmouth (port and suburb of Bristol –ed). A further move was then made via road to the harbor at Bristol, where the staff of the 38th boarded HMS Malta. There had been no information received of the ship’s destination, and the personnel awaited further news with baited breath. The ship departed from its berth later that morning, and sailed out of Bristol Channel up the Irish Sea and into the Firth of Clyde, Scotland. Here, the unit collected Captain William P. Kavanagh, who had been sent to Scotland sometime earlier on detached service with one of the many American supply ships to act as the ship’s surgeon. From Scotland, HMS Malta moved out to form part of a larger convoy in the open sea. No further instructions had been relayed to the unit’s staff, and the final destination was still unknown. Some of the large convoy broke up just before it reached the Straits of Gibraltar, including the Malta.
While anchored off the coast of Tangier, Spanish Morocco, a conference was called for the senior staff of the 38th by Col. Bauchspies. Bauchspies informed the staff that they were to form part of II Corps, Center Task Force and were to land at Arzew, Algeria.
|A group of the 38th's Officers off duty in England, do a little experimenting with English bicycles. Left to right: Kendrick, Pickens, Medearis, Felts, Stith, Snyder, Walker, Calder and Matthews.|
During the night of 7 November 1942, the staff were given orders to remain dressed and to be prepared for immediate ship departure. The following morning, at approximately 0100 hours the battleship gun suddenly disturbed the quiet of the silent night and was soon answered by the guns of the French shore installations. Shortly thereafter the landing task force went into action. At approximately 1200 hours, the unit’s personnel disembarked. Landing craft were waiting at the bottom of the netting to collect the Officers, Nurses and Enlisted Men, and to ferry them to the now secured beachhead.
The personnel then continued on foot to a fenced, recently deserted French military garrison building. None of the bedding rolls had yet been unloaded and so the first few nights were a rather uncomfortable experience. In addition to the lack of bedding, the garrison was under constant sniper fire, and many of the personnel remained indoors at all times. The Hospital equipment was unloaded and placed in a large field of the garrison several days later.
Three days after arriving at the bivouac area at Arzew, Algeria, the 38th received new orders sending them on 12 November to a station a mile and a half southeast of St. Cloud, Algeria. An advance party left the unit two days early in order to survey and select a suitable site to establish a 200-tent hospital. A large field was selected, measuring approximately 1,000 yards square.
The balance of the unit arrived during the afternoon of 12 November, and immediately began work pitching the required tentage. As darkness began to descend, many of the tents were not securely pinned to the ground, a mistake that would cost severe delays the following morning. A heavy wind during the night meant that many of the tents simply pulled their pins and fell to the ground. The following morning amidst the chaos, the unit’s first 8 patients were received. The facility had not yet been fully unpacked from its shipping crates, and many of the tents remained unpitched. This was certainly an unexpected surprise, but was dealt with in a timely fashion by the quick thinking of the Receiving staff.
|General view of the encampment at Tidworth Park, Salisbury, England.|
During the first week of operation at the new site, 300 patients were admitted, and admissions rapidly increased so that by 1 December the unit’s bed capacity had already been reached. The census included a vast majority of American, French and British casualties as well as several natives. The influx of admissions meant that numerous additions and extensions had to be made through the pitching of ward tents until the census reached 617 at midnight on 31 December 1942.
The roadways between the tents were all named, and a recovering patient at the facility who had been a signwriter in civilian life prepared road markers for them all. A large U-shaped driveway into the receiving section was lined with whitewashed stones, which also lined the other hospital thoroughfares. Officers and Nurses were quartered in Small Wall Tents, while the enlisted personnel were stationed in Shelter Tents on the other side of the complex. Further amendments were made to the facility by the addition of latrines, mess halls and large kitchens. This all represented significant work in extraordinary heat, with all of the hospitals water being transported from a water point in Arzew, some 14 miles away! In order to increase the readily available water source, canvas reservoirs were manufactured from tents and erected around the camp.
Progress in developing the hospital had been rapid. Small gasoline generators had finally arrived and the kerosene lanterns were no longer required. The Corps of Engineers finally sourced an uncontaminated well, and began pumping it around the hospital, finally bringing running water and showers. Coal was rationed, and there seemed to be no trees for lumber to burn, so many of the tent stoves remained unused. The nights were extremely cold, and most of the hospital personnel lay in their sleeping bags in darkness simply as a means to keep warm.
On 2 December 1942, three weeks after their landing in Africa, the men and women of the 38th Evacuation Hospital received a distinguished visitor – Ernie Pyle. He came to be a good friend and great admirer of the hospital’s personnel and would go on to write a series of syndicated columns about the 38th that would tell its story to his readers throughout the Zone of Interior.
By 5 December the hospital had reached its capacity of 750 patients. A detachment of 1 Officer and 30 Enlisted Men was received from the 708th Medical Sanitary Company to assist in the heavy burden this high census placed on the unit’s staff. The increased manpower assisted in evacuating many of the severe casualties to larger facilities in the area, and by midnight on 31 December 1942, the occupancy had been reduced to 617 patients.
|Drawing produced at St. Cloud by Clarence O. Keuster, Jr. shows the layout of the Hospital in that sector (where the unit operated as a station hospital from 13 November 1942 to 6 February 1943).|
As 1943 arrived, the 38th was still encamped at St. Cloud, but heavy rain and high winds in early January meant that the general operation was somewhat hampered. The winds were severe at times, which made administration and general clerking inside of tents extremely difficult. The poor weather conditions also damaged the on-site water reservoirs, resulting in the disappearance of clean running water. This naturally brought with it numerous complications and difficulties, not least of which was the general hygiene and sanitation around the camp. In an attempt to maintain morale, the Commanding Officer arranged for twice-weekly movies to be shown outdoors for all staff and patients of the 38th. The Post Exchange was also opened once a week, offering cigarettes, cigars and after-shaving lotions.
No patients, other than from command, were admitted after 2 January 1943. Orders were received to evacuate all patients to the surrounding General Hospitals, or return them to duty as quickly as possible. The last patient was discharged from the facility at 1800 hours on 6 February and the hospital was officially closed per verbal orders from the Surgeon General, Mediterranean Base Section. During the period from 13 November 1942 to 6 February 1943, a total of 2,027 patients were hospitalized, including 98 battle casualties.
After closing the hospital, all tents were struck, and with the equipment of the unit were packed and stored in readiness for movement to the next location. An intensive training program was instituted and carried out for the remaining period of bivouac in St. Cloud.
On 11 January 1943 the organization was relieved of attachment to II Corps, assigned to the Fifth United States Army and attached to the Mediterranean Base Section (in accordance with General Orders No. 3, Headquarters Fifth US Army, dated 11 January 1943 –ed).
|Overview of the tented facility at St. Cloud, Oran area, Algeria.|
Movement orders were finally received by the unit on 1 March 1943, ordering all personnel and equipment to be moved by rail to El Guerrah, Algeria by 4 March. The movement was completed in four echelons: the first echelon departed from Oran on 1 March, the second echelon departed the following day and the remaining two echelons on 3 March. The whole move was completed by 6 March 1943. The unit established a temporary bivouac area approximately six miles south of El Guerrah, while the selection of a suitable site was finalized. On 9 March 1943 the unit once again moved to a new location, approximately 1 ½ miles north of Télergma, Algeria, and proceeded to erect the hospital. The whole process was completed the following day, when the facility was officially opened. The first load of patients arrived at 1445 hours the same day; 23 battle casualties transferred from the 77th Evacuation Hospital.
Numerous changes to the unit’s organization and structure were made during the first few days at this new site. The 38th Evacuation Hospital was relieved from assignment to the Fifth US Army and assigned to the Eastern Base Section, and attached to the Line of Communication for maintenance and supply. On 25 April, 5 Nurses from the 3d Auxiliary Surgical Group were attached for quarters, rations and duty.
By 1 April 1943, the Hospital’s census was already 918, representing the largest ever recorded at any single point in time. Luckily the influx of admissions steadily subsided and no patients were admitted to the facility after 29 April. By this time, only 448 patients remained at the Hospital, and were either returned to duty, or evacuated to other hospital units in the area. The following day was spent striking tents and packing all equipment ready to once again move stations.
During the period 10 March to 29 April 1943, a total of 2,995 patients were handled, including 1,136 battle casualties.
|War Correspondent Ernie Pyle chats with patients at the 38th Evac Hosp during one of several visits to the unit.|
Preparations to move to the Tunisian battle front were completed and on 2 May 1943 the unit started a movement to the new location in accordance with instructions contained in a letter from Headquarters, Eastern Base Section dated 5 May 1943 confirming verbal orders. The movement was once again organized in a series of echelons, the final of which arrived at the new location 4 miles southwest of Bédja, Tunisia on 7 May 1943 where it was to take over a large tented facility formerly of the 77th Evacuation Hospital. Due to the capture of a number of German Army hospitals in the region, a considerable number of German prisoner patients were received upon arrival. A detachment of Military Police of five Enlisted Men and one Officer was attached to the organization for the purposes of guarding the prisoners. 15 additional Nurses from the 3d Auxiliary Surgical Group were also attached to the unit for quarters, rations and duty in this new location.
It was soon learned that the stay at Bédja was only temporary however, and the Hospital was officially closed at 0930 hours on 20 June 1943, following orders to once again relocate to a new hospital complex 1 mile north of Tunis. The majority of the patients were returned to duty, with 35 being transferred to the 3d Provisional Hospital located several miles away. During the period of operation at Bédja, a total of 3,357 patients were received, including 842 battle casualties and 760 prisoners of war.
The unit left Bédja at 0845 by truck, and arrived in Tunis 2 hours later. The new site was located in a suburb called Beau Site. All staff of the unit immediately began preparations to open the hospital. All work was completed the following morning, and the facility was officially opened at 0800 on 22 June. The work at the hospital was relatively light during its first day of operation, with only 7 patients being admitted. Due to the extremely low patient census, only a single ward was in operation at this time, and it included 29 vacant beds. Admissions steadily grew throughout the next two months however, and for the period between July and August, the total number of patients at any one time averaged approximately 325.
On 20 July it was announced that Col. Bauchspies had been relieved of position as Commanding Officer of the 38th Evacuation Hospital. Nine days later, Bauchspies left the unit via airplane for Casablanca to fulfil his new role as Surgeon, VI Corps. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas P. White (O-246499), MC assumed temporary command of the unit, and was officially appointed as the new Commanding Officer on 18 August 1943.
The facility at Tunis was officially closed on 28 August and all patients were evacuated to nearby units.
|Lieutenant Lela O. Russell, the 38th's Dietitian discusses the day's duties with one of her chief aides, Sergeant William J. Prickskett.|
The unit then prepared its equipment for movement. At 0900 hours on 1 September all personnel tents were struck and packed. Personal luggage was ready and the advance party prepared to leave for Italy. The party traveled through Oran, where it remained in a Staging Area overnight, and was joined by the balance of the unit and its equipment the following day. Finally, after several days of waiting, the time came for the unit to once again board its transport and leave North Africa. Several large barges ferried the personnel from the numerous piers to HMS Otranto anchored off the coast. The ship remained anchored for the rest of the day, and finally pulled out of the harbor in the early hours of 17 September 1943.
After four days at sea, the 38th Evacuation Hospital finally arrived in Agropoli, Italy on 21 September 1943. The first three days were spent in shelter tents and eating C rations until the unit’s equipment was delivered and full messing could be arranged. There were extremely high winds throughout the first week of the unit’s stay at this new facility, and one particular storm completely destroyed numerous wards of the neighboring 16th Evacuation Hospital. As a result, the 38th was ordered to open as a matter of urgency, and thus borrowed equipment from the 56th Evacuation Hospital and was officially opened in this location at 0830 on 29 September 1943. During its first day of operation, 201 patients were admitted to the facility with 4 dispositions being made, bringing the patient census to 197. The start of October brought an influx of new patients. Admissions on the first day of the month totalled 598 with no dispositions, thus bringing the total number of patients to 795. The 38th was now operating 26 wards, and another was opened the following day when an additional 19 patients arrived. The vast majority of the new arrivals were medical cases, suffering from malaria.
After only two weeks of operation an Agropoli, the installation was officially closed on 15 October, in readiness for a move further inland to a new site located at Caserta. The following statistics appear in the unit’s Daily Bulletin for the first fifteen days of action in Italy:
|Zone of Interior||426|
|Died of wounds||2|
The transportation of all personnel and unit equipment was completed by the following morning, and all staff worked relentlessly to once again prepare the Hospital to receive patients. All work was finalized by 1630 hours on 16 October 1943, and by 1700 hours the first patients began to arrive. Patients continued to arrive at a rapid pace with an average of 100 admissions being made each day. The heaviest enrolment during the Caserta period was 604 on 24 October. By the end of the month however, the patient census had dropped significantly. On 6 November only 206 patients remained, with large numbers of dispositions being made each day. Without advanced warning, the 38th received orders to cease operations on 6 November at 1200 hours. The entire facility was packed and transported one mile south of Tavernanova, where the personnel proceeded to once again unpack and set up the hospital.
|Aerial view showing the facility established by the 38th Evacuation Hospital near Tunis (where the organization stayed from 20 June 1943 to 24 June 1943).|
The 38th re-opened on 8 November at 1000 hours. The battle casualties rapidly and continuously filled the shock tents as Ambulances brought wounded troops from the front line. In order to cope with the large and constant influx of patients, ward tents were pitched end-to-end in order to provide a larger space per bed to allow for more efficient treatment. Semi-permanent doors were also produced from scrap lumber, and a large Operating Room was made by pitching three Large Wall Tents acquired from a nearby unit. The interior of the OR was almost completely covered in white sheets to enhance lighting facility, along with a single line of 10 bulbs to produce ample lighting for the four operating tables contained within.
Patients continued to arrive at the Hospital throughout November, and an average census during this period was approximately 550. The Hospital would continue to be busily engaged throughout the remainder of November and until the end of 1943.
On 4 December, 10 Officers and 6 Nurses were attached to the 38th Evac Hosp for duty from the 2d Auxiliary Surgical Group, and appointed as follows:
|General Surgical Team No. 18
Major Charles F. Chunn
Captain Charles L. Weston
2d Lieutenant Anna B. Berret
2d Lieutenant Mary V. Shearer
| General Surgical Team No. 2
Major Paul L. Dent.
Captain James L. Koccour
2d Lieutenant Anne K. Brix
2d Lieutenant Catherine M. Rodman
|Maxillo-Facial Team No. 2
Captain John K. Nattinger
Captain Hubert H. Nall
1st Lieutenant Waldemar Hoeffding
2d Lieutenant Marguerite Ruff
|Thoracic Team No. 1
Major Reeve H. Betts
Major Frederick W. Bowers
1st Lieutenant Aaron Himmelstein
2d Lieutenant Opal G. Davis
On Christmas Day 1943, the Hospital listed 646 patients, 116 of whom were admissions; twenty-two wards were in operations, 90 beds were vacant and 105 dispositions were listed. The morning was largely occupied with a church and carol service held in one of the wards. Later on, final deliveries of parcels from home were handed out, and a small feast was held in the mess tent for the staff and patients.
1944 began with a furious blizzard which lasted until the morning of 2 January. Damage to the facility was not extensive, but took several days to rectify and repair. As the cleanup operation continued, the hospital listed only 29 patients, since a total of 595 had been evacuated on New Year’s Eve to surrounding facilities due to the heavy storm and high winds. Throughout the opening week of January however, the patients gradually began to return and by 5 January the census stood at 245.
On 22 January, Major Kenneth B. Boyd, former Commanding Officer of the 93d Station Hospital (150-bed unit located at Dakar, French West Africa –ed) was assigned to the Medical Service of the 38th Evacuation Hospital. Numerous other promotions were made within the organization during this period.
|One of the diversions of the personnel of the 38th, both in North Arica and Italy, was watching the American planes come over.|
The number of patients admitted to the facility fell steadily throughout February, and by the middle of March only 150 patients remained. No new admissions were being made, and it soon became evident that closure and possible relocation were imminent. Finally, orders were received on the morning of 24 March 1944 indicating that the Hospital was to close at 1200 hours the same day. By this time, only 53 patients occupied the Hospital.
The facility had been open for a total of 138 days, during which time 9,793 admissions had been made.
The following day, transport arrived to carry the unit and its equipment to the new location, approximately 1 mile north of Nocelletto, Italy. The movement, which was carried out in two echelons, was finally completed during the afternoon of 27 March. The personnel immediately began to unpack the equipment and pitch the required tents. The exercise was completed on 29 March and the facility was officially opened the same day at 0800 hours. Only four patients were admitted in the first 48 hours at the new location, but gradually increased to 200 within the first week.
The stay here was short-lived however as orders were soon received to close the facility at 1200 hours on 7 April 1944. A total of only 311 patients had been admitted during this period, and the disposition was completed within 6 hours. Patients were either returned to duty, or sent to numerous hospitals in the surrounding area.
After the closure of the facility, a briefing was held for all staff, instructing them of the new location; Anzio. The following morning, trucks arrived to transport the staff and equipment to the reconditioned harbor at Naples, where the unit embarked on two LCTs (Landing Craft Tank –ed). The vessels left the port later that day, and arrived at Anzio at approximately 0730 hours on 9 April 1944. 2 ½-ton trucks were waiting for the arrival of the 38th, and transferred the unit to its new location inland. Upon arrival, the unit immediately began to unpack and set up the hospital’s equipment. Due to the recent heavy shelling experienced in the area, all tents were dug in and sandbags placed along the walls to offer greater protection from future bombardments. The facility was officially opened at 1200 hours on 9 April 1944 effectively replacing the 56th Evacuation Hospital, receiving a total of 193 patients during the first 24 hours of operation.
It was noted by many of the staff that the unit was now as close to the frontline as it had been in all operations since arriving overseas, and a notice was sent to all personnel that helmets were to be worn at all times, both on and off duty. Blackout conditions were set from 1930 to 0630 each evening.
|Pharmacist's aide Staff Sergeant Richard B. Robinson inspects the stock levels at an improvised pharmacy constructed of wooden packing crates.|
Patients continually arrived at the facility, and by 13 April the census had risen to 352, which further increased the following day to 532 after the arrival of several ambulance convoys. The 38th remained busy throughout April, and the daily patient average was 620. At the end of the month, 666 patients were present, with 334 vacant beds.
The Hospital staff was kept busy by constant admissions throughout May. After the liberation of Rome on 4 June, admissions began to slow down, and many patients were either returned to duty with their respective units, or evacuated to nearby Hospitals. Orders were received two days later to prepare for further movement.
The facility at Anzio was officially closed 1200 hours on 7 June 1944, and all equipment was packed and stored ready to move once again. The destination was soon announced as Doria Pamphili, Rome. The move was completed two days later, and the hospital once again opened to receive patients at 1100 hours on 9 June 1944. Within 24 hours of operations, 292 patients had been admitted, with a total of 368 vacant beds.
The stay at Doria Pamphili was very short however, and further instructions were received for the unit proceed to a new site 2 ½ miles north of Massa Marittima, Italy. The facility was closed at 1630 hours on 30 June, and began immediate movement to its new location. The Hospital personnel arrived at Massa Marittima at approximately 0900 the following day. The location was a large alfalfa field in the mountains.
The patient load during this period wasn’t high, and many of the personnel took the opportunity to visit nearby Rome, with a principal area of interest being the Catacombs. Perhaps the most memorable occasion for the personnel of the 38th during these weeks in the vicinity of Rome was a dance arranged for Enlisted Men of the unit by the nearby American Red Cross workers on 15 July. A nearby villa was to act as the venue for the party. A number of Nurses and WAC personnel were also invited, and food and other light refreshments were served. This was one of the first opportunities that had been presented to the Hospital staff for enjoyment since the unit’s arrival in Italy. The dance opened at 1830 and lasted for 3 and half hours. Many of the local inhabitants were also invited.
The facility at Massa Marittima was officially closed at 1000 hours on 17 July, and began an immediate move to a new location approximately 1 mile northeast of St. Luce, Italy. The Hospital was officially opened two days later at 1200 hours. Patients were immediately received from the 15th Evacuation Hospital.
|Lieutenants Elva Wells and Beth Killeen stand in front of the Hospital's sign in Italy.|
On 23 July, a small team from the 38th was assigned for temporary duty with the 33d Field Hospital, where it served as an auxiliary surgical unit. The following personnel were assigned: Major Duncan G. Calder, Jr., Captain George A. Hawes, Captain Stanley M. Nowacki, 1st Lieutenant A. Clementine Mills, T/5 Harold R. Carter and Pfc. Carl V. Neff. In return, an auxiliary surgical unit from the 300th General Hospital was placed on temporary duty with the 38th, with the following personnel being assigned to the unit:
|Captain Wilbur K. Brubaker
Captain John P. Hand, Jr.
T/4 Wick V. Ballettine
|Captain Robert C. Benson
2d Lieutenant Margaret I. Davies
T/4 Joseph C. Shaeffer
One week after opening at the new base, the Hospital’s patient roster stood at 463. The load slowly decreased throughout August, and by the end of the month, the unit reported 608 vacant beds. On 27 August, 21 men and women were attached to the 38th from the Brazilian Expeditionary Force, specifically to treat many of the Brazilian patients in the Hospital at this time. The team consisted of:
|Major Ernestino G. de Oliveira||Nurse Carmen Bebiano|
|Major Ari D. Nunes||Nurse Lucia Osorio|
|Captain Mirandolino J. Caldas||Nurse Maria de Carmo e Castro|
|1st Lieutenant Djalma C. Contreiras||Nurse Berta Morais|
|1st Lieutenant Renato D. Batista||Nurse Olga Mendes|
|1st Lieutenant Waldemar D. dos Santos||Nurse Altanira Valdares|
|2d Lieutenant Ari A. Soares||Sgt. Alfredo A. de Farias|
|2d Lieutenant Jose C. Amado||Sgt. Osvaldo M. Farias|
|Nurse Virginia N. Portocarrero||Sgt. Dimas S. de Silva|
|Nurse Antonieta Ferreira||Sgt. Renato S. Bahia|
|Sgt. Sebastiao R. dos Santos|
On 1 August 1944 the official report listed 392 patients under the care of the 38th. The last day of the month recorded a total of 324. September began with 301 patients. By 14 September, additional orders had been received for yet another change of location. The Hospital was officially closed that evening, and all personnel and equipment were transferred to a new site approximately 1 mile north of Pisa, Italy. The facility at Pisa was opened on 15 September 1944 at 0930 hours. 53 patients were transferred with the unit, and there were no new admissions during the first day of operation. One week after the move, the patient load had increased to 315.
|This photograph, made by Margaret Bourke-White for Life Magazine during her visit to the encampment between Riardo and Vairano, shows the mud with which the 38th's personnel had to contend during the 1943-1944 winter. The Nurse crossing the road is Lieutenant Violet Burgess.|
On 2 November 1944, the Arno River broke through the dikes in the Pisa area and inundated both the city and the 38th Evacuation Hospital with a sea of water as high as six feet. The severe flood caused damage to a great deal of hospital equipment. What couldn’t be salvaged had to be replaced through either official Quartermaster Corps requisitions, or by sourcing local alternatives. The flood persisted for several days, and by 8 November was running through the enlisted quarters. Many of the staff lost personal belongings along with clothing and individual equipment. Alternative billeting was located in nearby houses and buildings. All litter patients were evacuated to a warehouse building operated by the 12th Medical Depot Company in Pisa. The sturdy brick structure did not offer much respite from the water however, and within only a matter of hours the 38th’s Enlisted Men were placing sandbags at every entrance in an attempt to keep the flood at bay.
Orders were received on 12 November to move from the 12th Medical Depot facility to a new location close to Montecatini, Italy. All patients were evacuated to surrounding units, and the staff began to pack what little equipment remained. The move was completed several days later, and the Hospital was officially opened at 0800 hours on 16 November 1944. By 23 November, the patient census stood at 367, with fourteen wards in operation. By Christmas Day, 424 patients were being treated by the staff. During the next six days the patient load gradually increased to 722, with a peak of 810 being recorded on 30 December.
Two Surgical Teams were also assigned for temporary duty with the 38th on 30 December, with the following personnel being assigned:
|General Surgical Team No. 37-1:
Major Edward M. Phifer
Captain David S. Fetters
2d Lieutenant Carol F. Sleezer
2d Lieutenant Sophie T. Cowin
T/4 Robert L. Myers
T/4 Richard J. Tysarczyk
|Shock Team No. 105-1:
Captain Herman L. Hegner
2d Lieutenant Elaine C. Hatchew
2d Lieutenant Winifred E. Cochran
T/4 Walter H. Cotner
T/5 Anthony Serino
Pfc Elwood D. Heirominus
Two Officers also joined the unit on 3 February 1945; Major William B. Crawford, Jr. from the 15th Field Hospital and Major Byford F. Heskett from the 12th General Hospital. Additional replacements were received for other personnel lost due to transfers and other assignments, the most notable being the promotion of T/Sgt William E. Vaughn to Second Lieutenant and appointment to the 15th Field Hospital.
February ended with a visit to the Hospital by Major General Morrison C. Stayer (Surgeon, MTOUSA –ed) to inspect the facility. The visit was deemed a success.
Considerable change in the personnel marked the remaining weeks the 38th was based at Montecatini. Promotions, transfers and receptions from other units were frequently recorded. On 11 March, Colonel George T. Wood, Jr. Commanding Officer was transferred to the Zone of Interior for a new appointment. He was replaced the same day by Lieutenant Colonel William H. Pennington.
|Sergeant Randall K. Davis (at patient's head) and Technician James Ambrose prepare to x-ray a patient in Italy.|
The patient load slowly began to decrease, as more dispositions were being made than admissions. During the last day of operation at the facility, a total of 16 patients were admitted, while 361 dispositions were made to completely clear the roster of patients.
On 21 April 1945, a bulletin was sent by the unit’s new Commanding Officer, advising of yet another move, successful this time, to a location 1 mile south of Marzabotto, Italy. It read as follows:
Upon arrival at the new facility, additional personnel were assigned for temporary duty from the 2d Auxiliary Surgical Group as follows:
|General Surgical Team 21-1:
Captain Edgar H. Keys
Captain Francis W. Chamberlain
1st Lieutenant Eunishis H. Sorenger
2d Lieutenant Madelyn N. Parks
T/4 Dale J. Clayton
|Neuro-Surgical Team (15th Evac):
Captain Donald Wrork
1st Lieutenant Blanche Bird
2d Lieutenant Dorothy Coveny
T/4 David Morrison
General Surgical Team 37-3:
By 26 April, the patient census had risen dramatically to 318. On the last day of April, a little more than a week after it had been established at Marzabotto, the Hospital was once again on the move. The Daily Bulletin of 30 April 1945 reported:
|Illustration of a make-shift reservoir produced by lacing together several tents around a wooden frame.|
The following day, 1 May, the Hospital reported only a single patient, with the total number of vacant beds being 199. By 7 May, the patients in the hospital had increased to 368, of which 31 were new admissions. Admissions fell dramatically after V-E Day, and on 26 May 1945, less than a month after it had been established at Fidenza, the 38th moved once again. The Daily Bulletin read:
On the day of the move, the Hospital listed 154 patients, 14 admissions, 40 dispositions and 206 vacant beds, with seven wards in operation. The largest group of patients during the stay at Fidenza had been 507 on 11 May. Upon arrival in Salsomaggiore, numerous transfers were made out of the unit, 21 Enlisted Men were sent to the 171st Evacuation Hospital, and 5 Enlisted Men were sent to the 163d Medical Battalion. Numerous inspections were held throughout May and June to check for shortages of all equipment and uniform items – any excess was duly turned in by all personnel of the Hospital.
Orders were received on 28 June 1945 to close the Hospital at 1200 hours on that date. 20 dispositions were made on this day, bringing the patient census to a total of 0. All ward personnel were stood down, and all Enlisted Men were issued with a permanent pass, valid within Salsomaggiore.
|Illustration showing the devastation caused by the extreme flooding experienced during the 38th's stay near Pisa, Italy.|
Movement orders were received on 2 July 1945, instructing all personnel to prepare for movement immediately after breakfast the following morning. The Officers and Nurses of the unit boarded 4 buses at 0800 hours and left immediately. Orders had been received forbidding the Officer transport from joining the main convoy, but the destination was still unknown. The balance of the unit loaded into Army transport half an hour later, and departed 45 minutes behind the 38th’s Officers. The destination was soon announced: Florence Redeployment Training Area. The movement of all Hospital personnel was completed the following morning.
The 38th Evacuation Hospital which had originally been scheduled for return to the United States had been at the Florence Redeployment Center since early July was finally inactivated in the Theater on 8 September 1945. All “high pointers” were transferred out of the unit for return to the Zone of Interior, with some men being moved to different Hospitals now serving as "carrier" units, transporting high-score personnel to the US for separation.
|Angen, Willard F. (Capt, O-23596)||Medearis, William F. (Capt, O-461017)|
|Arnold, Lowndes W. (Capt, O-174131)||Miller, Robert P. (1st Lt, O-463455)|
|Augustine, Robert W. (Capt, O-464167)||Mitchell, Charles F. (Capt, O-302623)|
|Bard, Eli (Capt, O-347704)||Monteleone, Joseph (Capt, O-367945)|
|Bauchspies, Rollin L. (Lt Col, O-17819)||Montgomery, John C. (Capt, O-281845)|
|Baymer, Jack L. (Capt, O-368095)||Montgomery, John C. (Capt, O-415606)|
|Blake, Clayton A., Jr. (Capt, O-347363)||Munroe, Colin A. (Capt, O-463046)|
|Boyd, Granberry D., Jr. (Lt Col, O-249297)||Munroe, Henry S., Jr. (Capt, O-418220)|
|Boyd, Kenneth B. (Maj, O-485804)||Natalini, Carlo A. (Capt, O-1534581)|
|Brelsford, Harold J. (1st Lt, O-1546917)||Nowacki, Stanley M. (1st Lt, O-1696171)|
|Brower, Robert A. (1st Lt, O-1541382)||Payne, Joseph T. (Capt, O-462502)|
|Burwell, Lewis C., Jr. (Capt, O-460893)||Pedrick, Frank B. (WO, W-2108369)|
|Calder, Duncan G., Jr. (Capt, O345368)||Pennington, William H. (Maj, O-460894)|
|Carmouche, Ernest N. (Capt, O-414229)||Perry, Claud W., Jr. (1st Lt, O-464778)|
|Clune, James Patrick (Capt, O-477335)||Perry, Glenn G. (Capt, O-441331)|
|Crawford, John M. (Capt, O-335591)||Perryman, Olin C. (1st Lt, O-460894)|
|Crawford, William B. (Maj, O-1684058)||Pickens, Stanton W. (Capt, O-436406)|
|Crawley, Walter G., Jr. (Capt, O-339694)||Pitts, William R. (Maj, O-468119)|
|Crotts, Hylton K. (Capt, O-296270)||Pomper, Irving (Capt, O-360277)|
|Denning, Walter S. (Capt, O-262638)||Porter, Charles B. (1st Lt, O-448880)|
|Doubilet, Henry (Capt, O-439406)||Powers, John S. (1st Lt, O-1696547)|
|Dunn, James W. (1st Lt, O-321129)||Pugh, George E. (1st Lt, O-368304)|
|Evans, William Jr. (Capt, O-1696410)||Purdy, Charles I. (2d Lt, O-1691737)|
|Felts, James R., Jr. (2d Lt, O-429484)||Query, Richard Z., Jr. (Maj, O-403448)|
|Fleming, Laurence E. (Maj, O-427967)||Rasmussen, Earl (Capt, O-441328)|
|Gay, Charles H., Sr. (Capt, O-468098)||Rowe, George C. (Capt, O-446490)|
|Genin, Francis G. (Capt, O-493707)||Sanger, Paul W. (1st Lt, O-335946)|
|Grosselfinger, Harold W. (Capt, O-468659)||Sansom, Cecil P. (Capt, O-476514)|
|Guenther, Augustus J. D. (1st Lt, O-422216)||Schirmer, Robert H. (1st Lt, O-419555)|
|Harney, James N. (Capt, O-449572)||Snell, Eugene M. (WO, W-2108356)|
|Hawes, George A. (Capt, O-266113)||Snyder, George C. (Capt, O-430356)|
|Hoffman, Milo J. (1st Lt, O-356321)||Sotirion, George A. (1st Lt, O-445223)|
|Husst'lI, Walter A. (Capt, O-470914)||Speer, David S. (1st Lt, O-444474)|
|Imes, Pat R. (Maj, O-469603)||Stith, Robert B. (Capt, O-432226)|
|Jacobson, Wyman E. (Capt, O-404322)||Stone, Walter V. (Capt, O-361743)|
|Jones, Otis (Capt, O-402856, Chaplain)||Todd, John C. (Capt, O-1694300)|
|Jones, Otis H. (Capt, O415-623)||Tyson, Thomas D., Jr. (Capt, O-475912)|
|Kavanagh, William P. (Capt, O-402444)||Victorine, Charles (1st Lt, O-544423)|
|Kendrick, Vaiden B. (Maj, O-415628)||Walker, Bernard N. (Capt, O-300485)|
|Kenny, John L. (Capt, O-480101)||Warren, Robert O. Y. (Lt. Col, O-475486)|
|Kirkpatrick, James E. (1st Lt, O-489038)||White, Thomas P. (Lt. Col, O-246499)|
|LeClerc, Jean N. (Capt, O-462199)||Whittier, Raymond W. (Col, O-4098)|
|Leonard, William P., Jr. (Capt, O-356437)||Williams, McChord (Capt, O-441324)|
|Matthews, William C. (1st Lt, O-415603)||Wood, George T., Jr. (Maj, O-445228)|
|McCall, Robert E., Jr. (Capt, O-301748)||Wright, Harold S. (1st Lt, O-1690564)|
|McGrath, Frank B. (1st Lt, O-322566)||Yankauer, Alfred, Jr. (1st Lt, O-420765)|
|Alexich, Darinka (1st Lt, N-741462)||Johnson, Beatrice E. (2d Lt, N-742326)|
|Almond, Hallie E. (2d Lt, N-741920)||Johnson, Helen A. (2d Lt, N-742145)|
|Bachoka, Margaret P. (2d Lt, N-725056)||Jones, Juanita (2d Lt, N-729263)|
|Barbee, Ruth I. (2d Lt, N-742318)||Killeen, Elizabeth E. (2d Lt, N-723067)|
|Bell, lela P. (2d Lt, N-741921)||King, Marguerite M. (2d Lt, N-742965)|
|Benante, Lorraine M. (2d Lt, N-730749)||Knicely, Helena K. (1st Lt, N-724066)|
|Bertrand, Lucille B. (2d Lt, N-726172)||LaChance, Lola J. (2d Lt, N-742548)|
|Bivens, Wilma C. (2d Lt, N-742319)||LeBlanc, Lillian I. (2d Lt, N-721836)|
|Blandford, Mary F. (2d Lt, N-742320)||Logan, Ruth O. (2d Lt, N-725735)|
|Brady, Ann K. (2d Lt, N-722895)||Long, Angeline M. (2d Lt, N-724729)|
|Brice, Nina V. (2d Lt, N-725659)||Martin, Winnie Rae (2d Lt, N-742327)|
|Burgess, Violet O. (2d Lt, N-741923)||McCain, Ruby E. (2d Lt, N-741930)|
|Burnham, Audrey J. (2d Lt, N-730741)||McElwee, R. G. (2d Lt, N-741931)|
|Calton, F. (2d Lt, N-742380)||McMahon, Lillian A. (2d Lt, N-721794)|
|Camenisch, Helen J. (2d Lt, N-742321)||McVeigh, Charlotte R. (2d Lt, N-729192)|
|Carroll, Bernice (2d Lt, N-730801)||Meyers, Claire S. (2d Lt, N-725732)|
|Choate, Faye (2d Lt, N-725513)||Miller, Lexie W. (2d Lt, N-721908)|
|Clarke, Lula A. (2d Lt, N-742460)||Mills, Clementine A. (2d Lt, N-742328)|
|Coggins, C. (2d Lt, N-742322)||Mizelle, Margaret B. (2d Lt, N-742338)|
|Conturso, Katherine (2d Lt, N-723069)||Monson, Jeannette A. (2d Lt, N-741551)|
|Cornish, Gene F. (2d Lt, N-731472)||Moran, Sara Marion (2d Lt, N-742329)|
|Cox, Marion J. (2d Lt, N-725691)||Neely, Vera Mae (2d Lt, N-742330)|
|Culley, Mary A. (2d Lt, N-730682)||Neil, M. A. (2d Lt, N-727061)|
|D'Auria, Clara H. (2d Lt, N-723179)||Payne, Minnie T. (2d Lt, N-742330)|
|Dexheimer, Vera H. (2d Lt, N-730663)||Pegram, Martha (2d Lt, N-742382)|
|Dierker, Ruth (2d Lt, N-730288)||Perry, Catherine A. (2d Lt, N-753252)|
|Doskow, Deborah L. (2d Lt, N-723053)||Pilger, Gladys P. (2d Lt, N-723047)|
|Ellison, Adrienne J. (2d Lt, N-727531)||Pisinsky, Pauline B. (2d Lt, N-723118)|
|Fliedner, Martha G. (2d Lt, N-741926)||Radigan, Cathaleen (2d Lt, N-723052)|
|Fru th, Christine (2d Lt, N-743467)||Robicheaux, Mabel M. (1st Lt, N-745299)|
|Frye, L. (2d Lt, N-741972)||Roclstein, Leah (2d Lt, N-759140)|
|Fullbright, Bessie V. (2d Lt, N-741927)||Satre, Pearl M. (2d Lt, N-731251)|
|Gaynor, Helen A. (2d Lt, N-723143)||Schronce, J. B. (2d Lt, N-742339)|
|Gilliam, Elsie I. (2d Lt, N-726914)||Shields, Nelia C. (2d Lt, N-742333)|
|Gloser, Elizabeth (2d Lt, N-730831)||Shipp, Hosamond S. (2d Lt, N-742334)|
|Green, Sara J. (2d Lt, H-495)||Simmons, Hazel Ann (2d Lt, N-741933)|
|Greene, M. K. (2d Lt, N-742324)||Smith, Edna E. (2d Lt, N-720540)|
|Griffen, Mary, E. (2d Lt, N-721252)||Steffee, Janet L. (2d Lt, N-725228)|
|Gross, Nellie R. (2d Lt, N-760269)||Swanson, Elizabeth A. (1st Lt, N-741617)|
|Guyett, Edith E. (2d Lt, N-723054)||Tetzlaff, Marie A. (2d Lt, N-728712)|
|Haltiwanger, Carolyn T. (2d Lt, N-742325)||Thompson, Margaret L. (2d Lt, N-741934)|
|Harman, Josephine Lee (2d Lt, N-741928)||Townsend, Mary E. (2d Lt, N-720660)|
|Heaton, Annette M. (2d Lt, N-730622)||Victor, Julia E. (2d Lt, N-730242)|
|Hirtz, Rosalie D. (2d Lt, N-723055)||Webber, Charlotte Jean (2d Lt, N-742335)|
|Hobbins, Frances L. (2d Lt, N-725661)||Wells, Elva Earle (2d Lt, N-741935)|
|Hough, Bertha E. (2d Lt, N-741929)||Wills, Christine (2d Lt, N-742S59)|
|Hussell, Lela O. (2d Lt, N-742SS8)||Wingo, Barbara L. (2d Lt, N-742336)|
|Hustak, Mildred (2d Lt, N-723071)||Wittler, Billie (2d Lt, N-741541)|
|Jackson, Marion G. (1st Lt, N-720999)||York, J. O. (2d Lt, N-742560)|
|Jensen, Madeline L. (2d Lt, N-730829)|
|Sergeant Robert W. Dahn inspects a sample in the Hospital's laboratory. Notice the improvised lighting (disposed food tin).|
|Ackerman, Kenneth E. (Pvt, 20282326)||Mainero, Nichohs L. (Pfc, 32116856)|
|Akers, Tracy G. (Pvt, 35449360)||Maldonado, Sabino M. (Pfc, 38158542)|
|Albano, Gerard L. (Pvt, 32088830)||Maletz, Raymond H. (Pfc, 33146334)|
|Allen, Marion K. (Pvt, 32314467)||Malott, Chester P. (Pvt, 35790208)|
|Allen, Robert J. (Pvt, 32225968)||Mandarino, Dominic J. (Pfc, 20282297)|
|Allison, Guy J. (Pfc, 36125285)||Mapes, Gelbert H. (Pvt, 20281964)|
|Alsteen, Raymond W. (T/4, 36201938)||Marcario, Jack J. (Pvt, 32335359)|
|Ambrose, James L (T/5, 14000037)||Marinelli, Dominick (Pvt, 32116281)|
|Anderson, Louis A. (T/5, 36216010)||MarticeiJo, Victor (Pvt, 32032022)|
|Angarano, Michael (Pvt, 20282261)||Martinez, Ferinin (Pfc, 38011016)|
|AntonieIIo, Louis F. (Pfc, 32088854)||Masten, William F., Jr. (Pvt, 14068513)|
|Auberger, Haymond W. (Pfc, 32032145)||Mastrangelo, Tony J. (Pvt, 32116343)|
|Bakelaar, Louis J. (Pvt, 32263227)||Matison, Lynn S. (Pvt, 32034991)|
|Baker, Alex (Pfc, 36152277)||Mattison, Duane A. (Pfc, 20282162)|
|Barnes, Charles H. (Pvt, 33227599)||Maurath, Gerard A. (Pvt, 33037490)|
|Barton, George F. (Pvt, 32355371)||McCaffrey, Edward F. (Pvt, 32116861)|
|Bastin, Charles L. (Pvt, 17056242)||McCaughin, Helke A. (Pvt, 20282216)|
|Bates, Willard F. (Pvt, 36152320)||McClain, Eugene (T/4, 38121529)|
|Beamer, Robert R., Jr. (Pfc, 37084718)||McComlack, Joseph P. (Pvt, 32116619)|
|Beauter, Frederick M. (T/4, 20282066)||McDaniel, Charles A. (Pvt, 33189421)|
|Bednarski, Stanley J. (Pvt, 32088847)||McDaniel, James D. (Pvt, 15099216)|
|Beers, Donald H. (T/5, 20281882)||McGarrity, Elmer E. (Pvt, 34214558)|
|Behre, Stanley C. (Pfc, 33027502)||McKenna, John T. (Pfc, 20282280)|
|Benick, Joseph L. (Pvt, 32225966)||McKenzie, Jack D. (Pvt, 35308155)|
|Beraduce, Donald F. (Pvt, 31121790)||McKeon, Walter (T/5, 32047556)|
|Bercaw, William G. (T/5, 36421295)||McMahon, John L. (Pfc, 32752303)|
|Berger, Thomas C. (T/4, 13096852)||Meaney, Alpbonslls J. (Pvt, 33027594)|
|Berman, Nathan (Pvt, 32311684)||Mederos, Joseph E. (Pfc, 39390234)|
|Bishop, Robert E. (Pfc, 34240207)||Melnyk, John B. (Pvt, 32032153)|
|Bittner, Theodore p, (Pvt, 36152368)||Melton, Roy (Pfc, 35038809)|
|Blakler, Alfred F. (T/4, 11054251)||Merksamer, Norman M. (Pvt, 32225836)|
|Blass, Robert L. (Sgt, 39678037)||Miccinelli, John (Pfc, 32031979)|
|Blodgett, Donald R. (Pvt, 37442293)||Middleton, Ellsworth T. (Sgt, 20318720)|
|Blotsky, Anthony (Pvt, 31106163)||Miloshevsky, Joseph G. (Pfc, 33027121)|
|Boebeck: Jacob (Pvt, 32325442)||Minovich, William (Pvt, 32116478)|
|Boiko, William (Pvt, 32116680)||Mistkowski, Vincent E. (Pvt, 32226191)|
|Bopp, John C. (Pvt, 32047457)||Mitchell, John T. (Pfc, 32035103)|
|Boulier, John A. (Sgt, 20282320)||Molta, Charles J. (Pvt, 20282285)|
|Bradle, Russell J. (Pvt, 32047465)||Montrose, James V. (Pvt, 32116646)|
|Brandenstein, H. H. (Pfc, 36292792)||Morrison, Roy H. (T/5, 32035159)|
|Brannon, George W. (Pvt, 38292822)||Morse, James E. (Pfc, 32047545)|
|Briggs, Stuart C. (Pvt, 32047404)||Muleskey, Stanley J. (Pvt, 13005000)|
|Brown, Thomas F. (Pvt, 20282122)||Murphy, Robert G. (Pvt, 20282344)|
|Brownstein, Robert S. (Pvt, 32226490)||Musiel, Thadeus T. (Pvt, 32279878)|
|Buchanan, James E. (Pvt, 320:35110)||Musmeei, Dominick (Pvt, 32310668)|
|Bucher, Ralph C. (Pvt, 36152517)||Narducci, Adelchi A. (Pvt, 31113201)|
|Button, Richard H. (Pfc, 20281991)||Naznitsky, Peter (Pvt, 32088806)|
|Button, William S. (Pfc, 20281972)||Neff, Carl V. (Pvt, 7024016)|
|Camarata, Andrew (Pvt, 32116584)||Neil, Joseph W. (Pvt, 14068511)|
|Camderlengo, Patrick (Pfc, 32202276)||Nellis, Leo P. (Pvt, 32032098)|
|Campbell, Sedley F. (Pvt, 31108242)||Nelson, Grant E. (Pfc, 39227667)|
|Campione, Joseph J, (Pvt, 32032151)||Neubauer, Charles L. (Pvt, 12001037)|
|Carney, John R. (Pfc, 32116733)||Nicholas, William J. (Pvt, 32088868)|
|Carter, Harold R. (Pvt, 14062455)||Niciu, George J. (Pvt, 32312740)|
|Carvey, Philip H. (Pvt, 36179270)||Nienhaus, Elmer L. (Sgt, 32035216)|
|Cathey, Ben A. (T/5, 34071722)||Nobel', Kenneth P. (Pvt, 32047594)|
|Chakalos, Sam G. (Pvt, 32109262)||Noonan, William J. (Pvt, 32088860)|
|Chasky, Hyman (Pvt, 32088846)||Nunez, Dewey J. (T/5, 34005286)|
|ChiswelJ, Allred C. (Pvt, 14068509)||O'Connell, John (Pvt, 32035120)|
|Cieslinski, Martin T. (Pvt, 36152329)||O'Donnell, James J. (Pvt, 32035106)|
|Citron, Manuel (Pfc, 32032155)||Oenega, George W. (Pvt, 33265168)|
|Cleary, Dennis P. (Pvt, 323343805)||Ogle, Charles L. (Pvt, 34143475)|
|Coats, Harry W. (Pvt, 20282007)||O'Malley, Michael F. (Pfc, 32109676)|
|Coder, Chester P. (Pvt, 38583809)||Ortego, Irenio M. (Cpl, 38010312)|
|Coley, Dominic A. (T/5, 20282159)||Pajak, Joseph (Pfc, 31215117)|
|Coley, James (T/4, 20282160)||Pardikes, Steve J. (Pvt, 36170286)|
|Cologgi, Louis F. (Pfc, 32035152)||Parker, Paul R. (Pvt, 32034989)|
|Comisar, Allen (Pfc, 36120865)||Patronik, Sigismunc1 (Pvt, 32035149)|
|Constantinople, Louis W. (Pvt, 32116628)||Pedrick, Frank B. (S/Sgt, 33026855)|
|Cook, Paul E. J. (Pfc, 6129481)||Pekorosky, Joseph B (Pfc, 33021002)|
|Cooper, Floyd M. (Pfc, 35121279)||Pello, Mike (Pvt, 32088882)|
|Corrigan, Thomas K. (Pvt, 32116799)||Perri, Gerardo (Pvt, 32116710)|
|Cothron, Oscar G. (S/Sgt, 20428040)||Perry, Arthur J. (Pvt, 31070186)|
|Cotton, Russell B. (Pvt, 33040593)||Perugini, Oswald (Pvt, 32116784)|
|Coviello, Edmund T. (Pvt, 32088853)||Petty, Edgar R. (Pfc, 35001225)|
|Cox, Virgil H. (Pfc, 35121237)||Phillips, Paul A. (Pfc, 37460270)|
|Credno, Joseph J. (Pvt, 20282317)||Picone, James A. (T/5, 32116779)|
|Csyczka, Harry (Pvt, 32296755)||Pierlconi, Ennius F. (Pvt, 32032046)|
|Czyzewski, John A. (Pvt, 32316080)||Pierson, Arthur W. (Pfc, 32035014)|
|Dahn, Robert W. (T/5, 32032210)||Piotrowski, Stephen (Pvt, 32032091)|
|Dale, Kenneth M. (Pvt, 32298018)||Piperato, Adam J. (Pfc, 33032500)|
|Danko, Michael (Pvt, 32225618)||Pisa, Anthony C. (Sgt, 32109574)|
|Darling, Leslie R. (Pvt, 32032134)||Pisano, Almerindo J. (Pfc, 32116172)|
|Darrow, Seymour E. (Pfc, 32069372)||Pittigher, Aldo (Pfc, 32610843)|
|Davenport, William B. (Pvt, 32047514)||Piwowarski, John J. (Cpl, 36352874)|
|Davies, Sylvester T. (Pfc, 20644012)||Pollack, Charles (Pvt, 32325746)|
|Davis, Benjamin (Pvt, 32324638)||Pollino, Frank S. (Pvt, 32035078)|
|Davis, Edward, Jr. (Pvt, 32321429)||Porter, George R. (Pfc, 32940841)|
|Davis, Leslie (Pvt, 37448827)||Presutto, Eugene J. (Pvt, 20282286)|
|Davis, Randall K. (Pvt, 14068510)||Pricskett, William J. (Sgt, 33027190)|
|DeBarbieri, John P. (Pvt, 20282334)||Purcel, Eugene J. (Pfc, 32031980)|
|DeBono, Anthony J. (Pvt, 32116645)||Purdy, Charles I. (Pvt, 12062674)|
|DeCoursey, John J. (Pvt, 20282335)||Purdy, Lloyd D. (Pvt, 15098550)|
|Dellapolla, Joseph (Pvt, 32226175)||Ragsdale, Noah W. (T/5, 37066378)|
|Demchuk, Peter (Pvt, 32298729)||Rarrick, Richard F. (Pfc, 32035003)|
|DeVerso, John A. (Pfc, 20282267)||Rau, Waldo J. (Pfc, 361S2348)|
|DiNapoli, Joseph (Pvt, 32116606)||Record, Samuel A. (T/4, 38175182)|
|Dionne, Francis X. (Pvt, 31075270)||Reeves, Hurschel S. (S/Sgt, 6912228)|
|Donnelly, Eugene H. (Pvt, 33032737)||Regan, Marvin D. (Pvt, 14073620)|
|Doucett, William H. (Pvt, 32225958)||Remillard, Louis D. (Pfc, 20281912)|
|Downey, Richard J. (Pvt, 32313727)||Rendl, John (Cpl, 36352891)|
|Doyle, Thomas C. (Pvt, 11024518)||Rex, Walter A. (Pfc, 35574032)|
|DubendorFer, Joseph D. (Pvt, 20281976)||Reynolds, John J. (Pvt, 31075904)|
|Duerr, Richard (Pvt, 32116786)||Reynolds, Norman S, (Pvt, 32225798)|
|Duke, Linwood A. (Pfc, 6941867)||Riano, Willard G. (Pvt, 20282346)|
|Dunkel, Ezra W, (Pvt, 36152433)||Rich, Frank c., Jr. (Pvt, 32032054)|
|Dunkle, Chu'encc O. (Pfc, 33021532)||Rickard, Edward H. (Pfc, 11047871)|
|Durand, George H. (Pvt, 20282172)||Ripkoski, Herman W. (Pfc, 6298918)|
|Eckart, Wilson P. (Pvt, 32225961)||Robinson, Richard B. (Pfc, 33031910)|
|Edger, Paul W. (Pvt, 20281977)||Rose, Howard W. (Pfc, 20282131)|
|Edwards, James M. (Pvt, 33001072)||Rosen, Maurice J. (S/Sgt, 39161658)|
|Elder, John H. (Pfc, 32116538)||Rowan, Joseph E. (Pvt, 32116635)|
|Elias, Micheal (Pvt, 3415S697)||Roy, Henry S. (T/3, 31034380)|
|Partial view of the 38th Evacuation Hospital set up at Montecatini. It would move from here on 21 April 1945 to a new location near Marzabotto, Italy.|
|Elkin, William (Pfc, 32361679)||Saide, Abraham C. L. (Pfc, 32035148)|
|Elliott, Vincent J. (Sgt, 33021533)||Samson, Carl A. (Pvt, 37071692)|
|Evans, Robert L. (Pfc, 32031984)||Sanfilippo, Joseph (T/5, 32148850)|
|Evenson, Edward L. (T/5, 17037021)||Santelli, Lawrence J. (Pvt, 32026218)|
|Failla, Salvatore J. (Pvt, 32116745)||Savino, Dominic J. (Pfc, 32035109)|
|Fairbrother, Warren L. (Pfc, 32035177)||Scardamaglia, Carl (Pvt, 32035070)|
|Fantacone, Carmine G. (Pvt, 32011603)||Scarola, Vito J. (Pvt, 32088803)|
|Federspiel, Frederick (T/4, 19062982)||Schillace, John A. (Pvt, 32032109)|
|Fenocchi, Amelio R. (Sgt, 32031893)||Schmidt, Edward F. (Sgt, 33026625)|
|Ferrantino, Samuel S. (Pvt, 33130373)||Schmitt, Charles P. (Pfc, 32116943)|
|Finelli, Frank (Pvt, 32047433)||Schueler, Herbert P. (Pfc, 32035230)|
|Fink, Louis O. (Pvt, 36152421)||Schulenburg, Carl J. (Pvt, 32032042)|
|Fisk, George T. (Pfc, 20281826)||Schultz, Simon (S/Sgt, 37130833)|
|Fleischman, George H. (Pvt, 32225981)||Schwartz, Ben (Pvt, 32324799)|
|Fluck, David E. (Pfc, 33021284)||Sears, Kenneth R. (Pvt, 20281913)|
|Foldie, George T. (Pfc, 36152493)||Seeley, Berlen (Pvt, 32225392)|
|Folmar, Robert C. (Pfc, 20282074)||Sellers, Gardner C. (T/4, 37204913)|
|Foote, George W. (Pvt, 32032030)||Semeraro, Frank N. (T/4, 31046286)|
|Fradenburgh, Raymond G. (Pfc, 37323393)||Sexton, Jasper (Pfc, 34193799)|
|Franklin, John L. (Pvt, 32226416)||Sharkey, Hugh J. (Pvt, 32116880)|
|Fredericks, Charles A. (Pvt, 32047522)||Sherman, Harry (Pvt, 32194532)|
|Freedburg, Myer A. (Pfc, 6136054)||Sherman, Harry (Pvt, 32194532)|
|Fuoua, Ivan W., Jr. (T/5, 14097874)||Shobert, Jack L. (Pvt, 20282000)|
|Gagnon, Philippe (Pvt, 11048728)||Shohert, Jack L (Pfc, 20282000)|
|Gagnon, Philippe (Pvt, 11048728)||Siedlecki, Caesar J. (Pvt, 33021452)|
|Galusha, Harold L. (Pvt, 20281979)||Silsby, Alfred L. (Pvt, 32035001)|
|Garman, Robert C. (Pvt, 33242295)||Simons, Charles F. (Pvt, 32513069)|
|George, Robert W. (Pfc, 11062173)||Simpson, Howard S. (Sgt, 33027357)|
|Giragosan, Martin M. (Pvt, 32226528)||Sirois, Come E. (Pvt, 31060551)|
|Glatkowski, Walter (Pvt, 32088864)||Smith, Frank L. (Pvt, 32226051)|
|Gleba, Joseph S. (Pfc, 33026412)||Smith, John J. (Pvt, 32226104)|
|Golankiewicz, Roman B. (Pvt, 42134765)||Smith, Melvin R. (Pvt, 34771398)|
|Goldsmith, Eugene (Pvt, 32088798)||Smith, Paul R. (Pvt, 32298203)|
|Goodyear, Leroy M. (T/5, 20282125)||Smith, William E. (Pfc, 32034950)|
|Grant, George J. (Pvt, 35154815)||Smolier, Milton J. (Pvt, 32882700)|
|Graves, Altman L. (Pvt, 34186906)||Snell, Eugene M. (S/Sgt, 33010965)|
|Greene, Harold W. (Pvt, 32226404)||Snider, Randolf G. (Pvt, 33310977)|
|Griswold, William E. (Pvt, 20281980)||Soeder, Harlan D. (Pvt, 33021193)|
|Groff. Jacob S. (Pfc, 32035038)||Sokol, Joseph (Pvt, 32088820)|
|Gromko, Peter (Pfc, 32088884)||Solomito, Christopher (Pvt, 32116088)|
|Grugan, Donald B. (Pvt, 20281921)||Solomon, Charles A. (Pfc, 32004058)|
|Hafner, Alfred G. (Pfc, 20281828)||Spear, John 32116949 (Pvt, Private)|
|Hager, Sidney H. (Pvt, 35210318)||Speranza, James A. (Pvt, 32880036)|
|Hamashin, Lloyd J. (Pfc, 33032386)||Sposato, Ralph A. (Pfc, 35331574)|
|Hamatz, Murray, (Pvt, 32088826)||Spry, Howard J. (Pvt, 34670373)|
|Hausch, Harry W. (Pfc, 32035114)||St. Peter, Oren L. (Pvt, 31060519)|
|Hawks, Everett M. (Pvt, 32315836)||Stack, Theadore (Pvt, 32855525)|
|Haynes, Robert E. (Pfc, 20281983)||Stahl, Robert C. (Pvt, 31101708)|
|Hebron, Clarence (Pvt, 33345881)||Starbird, Walter H. (Pvt, 31188182)|
|Heinbold, Edwin (Pvt, 36152347)||Stead, William T. (Pvt, 12047872)|
|Henry, Jack T. (Pvt, 32088871)||Stefanehik, John A. (Pvt, 32882252)|
|Henwick, Wilbur D. (Pvt, 36152370)||Stepnoski, Edward S. (Pvt, 32225965)|
|Hepkins, Donald E. (Pvt, 32035228)||Stewart, Harry L. (Pvt, 12071771)|
|Hershkowitz, Jack (Pvt, 32088808)||Stewart, James A. (Pvt, 11013569)|
|Hoberts, Harry H. (Pvt, 11051163)||Stoddard, Owen C. (Pvt, 32035048)|
|Hodgson, Albert (Pvt, 31087011)||Stowe, Wilbur W. (Pfc, 34663517)|
|Horvath, John J (Pfc, 32225834)||Stronczewski, Joseph T. (Pvt, 33336724)|
|Hotz, Irvin W. (Pfc, 38158558)||Suddard, Harold E. (Pfc, 20282193)|
|Houghton, Frank H. (Pfc, 32032119)||Surowicz, Stanley C. (Pvt, 32032185)|
|Hulse, Ernest B. (Pfc, 32032087)||Swenson, Gordon C. (Pfc, 37177624)|
|Husowec, John (Pvt, 32088875)||Sylvester, Raphael (Pvt, 11066364)|
|Ierulli, Nicola A. (Pvt, 32116436)||Szelwian, Frank J. (Pvt, 20281917)|
|Intintoli, John (Pvt, 32116613)||Tabi, Israel (Pvt, 32295529)|
|Ireland, Kenneth S. (Pfc, 32116817)||Tabor, Samuel B. (Pvt, 31070292)|
|Irwin, Thomas S. (Pvt, 32312762)||Tabor, Walter J. (Pvt, 36357614)|
|Jackson, Edward A. (Pfc, 33037S06)||Talhot, William F. (Pfc, 32032099)|
|Jackson, Richard A. (Pvt, 33033628)||Tanyi, Paul (Pvt, 32035141)|
|Jackson, William W. (T/5, 32116489)||Thomason, Lester (Pvt, 33189574)|
|Jacob, Meier (Pfc, 32035221)||Tipton, Joseph H. (Pvt, 15044989)|
|Janbaz, Edward H. (Pvt, 32266123)||Tirocchi, Angelo (Pvt, 31181682)|
|Janesko, Joseph (Pvt, 32226188)||Tisdell, Leroy K. (Pvt, 20282291)|
|Johnson, Herbert L. (S/Sgt, 32035245)||Towler, John N. (Pvt, 32312805)|
|Jomisko, Charles (Pvt, 12006532)||Tracy, Edward V. (Pfc, 32032126)|
|Jones, Delbert P. (Pvt, 37285757)||Trafford, Aubrey C. (Pvt, 6149472)|
|Jones, Gwynfryn T. (Pfc, 3302095S)||Trainovech, William T. (Pvt, 31107090)|
|Kaplan, Isadore (Pvt, 33054887)||Trivison, Daniel J. (Pfc, 20282292)|
|Kener, George C. (Pvt, 32035123)||Trodden, James (Pvt, 32297763)|
|Keough, John P. (Pvt, 32315269)||Trombley, John I. (Pvt, 20282198)|
|Kertis, Michael (Pfc, 32116760)||Tubiolo, Anthony H. (Pvt, 32032047)|
|Kieffer, Fred W. (Pvt, 32296163)||Upton, Raymond F. (Sgt, 12008178)|
|Kimble, Leonard C. (T/5, 33246925)||VanderWoude, Andrew (Pfc, 36152158)|
|King, Marcus B., Jr. (Pfc, 11012145)||VanNostrand, Walter R. (T/5, 20282109)|
|Klemens, John P. (Pvt, 32225603)||Vaughn, William E. (T/4, 20281875)|
|Knapp, Wilbur H. (Pfc, 32047552)||Virginski, Stanley C. (Pvt, 36152438)|
|Kogucky, William (Pvt, 32322385)||Vosburgh, Rexford L. (Pvt, 32032265)|
|Kopclla, Andrew (Pvt, 32088805)||Voss, Rudolph A. (Pvt, 32326737)|
|Kricki, Mike (Pvt, 32088855)||Waid, George W. (Pvt, 32035094)|
|Krisak, Michael J. (Cpl, 20282272)||Waldron, Carl H. (Pfc, 32032100)|
|Kroeger, Louis F. (Pvt, 32314433)||Waldron, Edward J. (Pvt, 20282349)|
|Kuester, Clarence O., Jr. (Pvt, 14068512)||Walton, William R. (Pfc, 34353533)|
|Kugler, Paul H. (T/5, 32116774)||Waring, Donald E. (Pvt, 20282360)|
|Kutil, Henry J. (Pvt, 32116594)||Wass, Lloyd I. (Pvt, 36536179)|
|Lambert, Virgil (Pvt, 35751689)||Watson, Cecil G. (Pvt, 34312492)|
|Laubengayer, Robert E. (Pfc, 32032177)||Waynas, John P. (Pvt, 32088881)|
|Lavin, Louis L. (Pvt, 32088801)||Weinheimer, Leonard (Pfc, 20282322)|
|Leisenfelder, Joseph J. (Pvt, 32047515))||Welbourne, Paul A. (Pvt, 32032259)|
|Leo, Daniel A. (Pvt, 20282273)||Westbrook, Paul L. (Pvt, 20282090)|
|Leppert, Charles W. (T/4, 36049265)||White, Henry J. (Pvt, 20281926)|
|Lewis, Floyd Y. (Pvt, 34771435)||White, Paul G. (S/Sgt, 6968714)|
|Lindeman, Raymond (Pvt, 32618182)||Whitford, Cecil B. (Pvt, 20282202)|
|Link, Frank C. (Pvt, 32116625)||Wollke, Charles (Pfc, 32032133)|
|Little, Henry R. (Pvt, 31060521)||Wood, George B. (Pvt, 32298844)|
|Loerke, Bruce W. (Pfc, 20282009)||Youmans, Arnold E. (Pfc, 20282101)|
|Lorber, Robert L. (S/Sgt, 20282276)||Young, William (T/5, 36016786)|
|Losito, Carmine N. (Pvt, 32116903)||Youschzak, Stephen (Pvt, 32088865)|
|Lowney, Francis J. (Pvt, 31112820)||Zaleckas, Stanley P. (Pvt, 31073876)|
|Lucy, Joseph B. (Pvt, 32047573)||Zeiser, Lester L. (Pvt, 31102925)|
|Ludwig, Warren C. (Pfc, 37236934)||Zieja, Stephen J. (Pvt, 32130319)|
|Luhrano, Louis A. (Pvt, 32222196)||Zielinski, Herman J. (Pfc, 32035151)|
|MacDonough, William F. (Cpl, 20282218)||Zimmer, Herbert L. (Pfc, 20282351)|
|MacDougal, Richard S. (T/5, 20282215)||Zmijewski, Edward W. (Pvt, 32281876)|
|MacLean, Ian (Pvt, 32035113)|
The authors are still looking for additional information about the unit’s time at the Florence Redeployment Training Area & Center and further inactivation. Any additional information about return of 38th Evacuation Hospital personnel to the Zone of Interior would be most gratefully received.