33d General HospitalUnit History

Lt. Colonel Eldridge H. Campbell, Jr., MC, who was tasked with recruiting a medical staff for the soon to be activated 33d General Hospital.

Introduction & Activation:

World War 1
As Base Hospital No. 33, a group of Doctors and Nurses was organized in June 1917, at the Albany Hospital, Albany, New York, being mobilized 19 November 1917, at Troop B, National Guard Armory, Albany, N. Y., where it remained in training for five months. On 26 April 1918, the organization entrained for Camp Merritt, New Jersey. It embarked 3 May 1918 on the “Carmania”, and sailed in convoy from Hoboken, New Jersey, with destination Great Britain. The ship arrived at Liverpool, England on 16 May 1918, and the unit left immediately for the rest camp at Knotty Ash, where it remained for two days until it was transferred to the American Expeditionary Force rest camp at Winnall Down, Winchester. After arrival, the organization remained awaiting permanent assignment until 3 June 1918. In the meantime, the majority of the personnel during this time were assigned to duty in hospitals and camps in England.
The Commanding Officer of Base Hospital No. 33 was Lt. Colonel Alleyne von Schrader, M.C., who assumed command from September 1917 to August 1918. He was succeeded by Lt. Colonel Erastus Corning, MC, who served from August 1918 until the unit’s inactivation.

Lt. Colonel Alice H. Spellman, ANC, responsible for recruiting the necessary Nurses for the 33d General Hospital. She was subsequently appointed Chief Nurse of the organization.

On 3 June 1918, the organization moved to Portsmouth, England, where it took over a portion of the Fifth Southern General Hospital, known as the Fawcett Road Section. On 8 July, the unit was transferred to the Portsmouth Borough Asylum, which was in greater readiness for immediate use. The asylum buildings were of modern construction, brick and stone, and located in the center of an 83-acre tract, with a capacity for housing 1,000 patients. Its capacity was eventually to be increased by construction of additional wards, about 70 in number. These buildings were about 35% complete by 23 November, when orders were received to abandon further construction. On 5 August 1918, the Chief Surgeon, A. E. F., designated Base Hospital No. 33 a special hospital for patients suffering from war neurosis; 160 of these cases were handled by the unit. The highest census of sick and wounded was registered on 17 November, when 1,586 were being cared for. From 24 July to 31 December 1918, Base Hospital No. 33 treated 1,782 medical and 1,765 surgical cases.
On 1 January 1919, all remaining patients were evacuated and the Hospital ceased operations. The unit sailed from Brest, France, 18 February 1919, on the “Olympic”. It arrived in New York 24 February, and was inactivated at Camp Upton, New York, 5 March 1919.

Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, MC, CO, 33d General Hospital (July 1942 - August 1945).

Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, MC, CO, 33d General Hospital (July 1942 – August 1945).

World War 2
In 1941, the Board of Governors of the Albany Hospital received a Letter from the War Department requesting that a hospital unit for overseas service again be organized. Lt. Colonel Eldridge H. Campbell, Jr., MC, attending Neuro Surgeon was asked by the Board to act as Unit Director and to start recruiting a staff of Doctors, while Miss Alice L. Spellman, Instructor at the Russell Sage College of Nursing, was appointed Chief Nurse with the task of recruiting a group of 100 Nurses for the new organization. The former Base Hospital No. 33, which served in the Great War, and was affiliated to the Albany Hospital in New York would rise again to be designated the 33d General Hospital, to be activated on 15 July 1942.

Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, MC, Commanding Officer of the 33d General Hospital, who joined the unit on 15 July 1942.

On 16 July the first group of Medical Doctors arrived at Fort Eustis, Lee Hall, Virginia (Antiaircraft Artillery Replacement Training Center, where new Battalions were taught by Officers of the Coast Artillery Corps –ed), which was to become the organization’s first training ground. A first increment of Nurses together with a small group of Medical Administrative Officers joined the unit on 21 July 1942. 50 Enlisted Men from a Basic Medical Training Battalion based at Camp Lee, Petersburg, Virgina (Army Service Forces Replacement Training Center –ed), and destined to form the original cadre of the 222d General Hospital had already arrived in June. Their strength was gradually increased to several hundred by addition of more personnel. Finally, 200 EM from the 222d General Hospital were transferred to the 33d General which was organized and ordered into active military service. The 1,000-bed 33d General Hospital received a new Commanding Officer; Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, MC, who had served with Base Hospital No. 115 in France, during World War 1 (Lt. Colonel A. H. Nylen had been in command of the 104th Medical Training Battalion at Camp Joseph T. Robinson, Infantry & Medical Replacement Training Center, in Little Rock, Arkansas, and upon his transfer to the 33d General Hospital, was replaced by Major George B. Moore, Jr. –ed).

Training:

Upon arriving at Fort Eustis, Virginia, it was discovered that the contingent of ANC Nurses were the first large group of women to descend on the camp. This already created some confusion and bitterness as a number of Enlisted Men occupying the two-story typical GI barracks had to evacuate their quarters and move into the individual tents pitched about the area. The shower rooms became quite popular with the heat and humidity of the South. Many sleepless nights were experienced during July and August when the men and women would lie panting on their beds. In the stifling daytime heat of the summer, the baked pancake-flatness of Fort Eustis was far from enjoyable to put it mildly. There were some recreational trips to places as Yorktown, to Virginia Beach for swimming (very popular), and to Jamestown. On Saturday afternoons one of the most favorite pastimes was to make a dash for the Lee Hall railroad station and hop on the train for Washington and other places of interest north. When other means of transportation were not to be had; one possibility was to fall back on the reliable “Smitty’s Cab Service” who would take anyone anywhere. Another favorite hangout was “Chowning’s Tavern” which served the best beer in the South; and just outside the camp gates was the “Milk Bar” another beer joint that sold milk as a minor sideline. There were always sponsored dances and softball games.
The Training Program lasted seventeen weeks, not only including the very basic military stuff, the numerous medical and surgical class topics, but also the CWS instructions including gas mask drill with the thrill of going through the gas chamber to emerge with tears streaming down one’s face. Every possible subject, ranging from military courtesy to technical matters peculiar to the Medical Department, in short everything that would prepare ‘green’ personnel for overseas service, was part of the program.
Apparently the trainees’ chief delight was dismounted drill, with so many men and women experiencing difficulty in differentiating their left from their right. The immense patience of the drill sergeant however overcame all obstacles.
Training for the EM included such items as forced marches, overnight bivouacs, first aid, close order drill, litter bearing, ambulance loading and unloading, tent pitching, lectures, calisthenics, and ward work at the Post’s Station Hospital. The 33d was the only Hospital (still in training) at Fort Eustis besides the regular Station Hospital, and also the first hospital unit to carry out the training of a portion of its own men. There was a memorable 3-day bivouac at Yorktown when dozens of men and women were prostrated by the heat and had to be brought back to the Post by ambulance. It certainly was a bad day for the men when Captain Robert B. Gottschalk, MC, took them hiking because he’d march them into the ground with his long strides. The Officers too drilled, went on hikes, and were assigned duties in the Station Hospital.

Typical G.I. barracks building at Fort Eustis, Lee Hall, Virginia. It became the 33d General Hospital’s first station in the Zone of Interior and the start of some serious and intensive training.

Training Program, Allotted Hours
Non-Specialist – 572
Basic Medical or Surgical Technician – 139
Basic Dental Technician – 176
Basic Veterinary Technician – 264
Basic Sanitary Technician – 176
Bandsman – 352
Clerk – 352
Supply Sergeant or Receiving & Shipping Clerk – 132
Mess Sergeant or Cook – 484
Truckmaster or Foreman Mechanic or Automobile Mechanic – 484
Truck Driver – 176

During the training period, non-Medical Officers, American Red Cross workers, and additional Enlisted Men were assigned to fill out the authorized strength. T/O 8-550, 1,000-bed General Hospital, Communications Zone, dated 1 April 1942, called for a personnel aggregate of 56 Officers – 1 Warrant Officer – 105 Nurses – and 500 Enlisted Men.

Early September, there were some alerts for movement but nothing came of it. Then, while training was still going on, the high mercury of summer sank into the coolness of October. Suntans were shed for ODs now and after absorbing an enormous chunk of Army life, the unit had finally grown to a full-fledged Army Hospital.

Front view of the Station Hospital at Fort Jackson, Columbia, South Carolina. Second station for the 33d General Hospital, where more training was received.

“The Sky-Watch”, the camp newspaper, announced in bold headlines on Friday 23 October 1942, that Governor Colgate W. Darden, Jr. of Virginia was expected to visit the Post the next Saturday as guest of honor of General Williford, CG, Fort Eustis, for a general review of the garrison troops. Although drenched by rain during the trial run on Friday, the review and parade were a success, with the spectators’ loudest applause reserved for the Nurses!

Change of Station:

The 33d General Hospital departed Fort Eustis by rail in the early morning of 17 November 1942 for a permanent change of station, arriving late that same night at Fort Jackson, near Columbia, South Carolina (Infantry Training Center –ed). The camp and surrounding area was very large (almost 59,000 acres -ed) having ample room for several full Infantry Divisions besides being host to smaller units of which the Hospital was one.
After settling in, training of Officers, Nurses, and Enlisted personnel resumed and ANC members were assigned to duty in the Station Hospital.

A basketball team was organized and, after going from victory to victory, ran off with the non-Divisional Championship by whipping the 52d Medical Battalion. In the semi-finals, the Hospital lost to a team from the 100th Infantry Division. Columbia families often invited men and women to their homes for Sunday dinner, and there were the usual USO-sponsored dances in town. The unit’s first Christmas Eve was celebrated with one gigantic party attended by all the Officers, Nurses, and Enlisted Men. For the boys unable to attend because of guard or other duties, Major Walter C. Mott, MC, played Santa Claus.

Inside view of Nurses quarters at Fort Jackson, Columbia, South Carolina. Picture taken shortly after arrival of the 33d General Hospital at its second station in the Zone of Interior, end of 1942.

In January 1943, the Officers and Enlisted Men were assigned to full duties in the Station Hospital. At the beginning of May, hospital duties were cast aside for a while to resume a new program of intensive training. With it came the less easily forgotten Infiltration Course, where everybody had to crawl fifty yards under barbed wire while .30 caliber machinegun bullets whined a few feet above their heads.

Rumors abounded, and it became evident that the North African campaigns drew to a bang-up finish and that the Hospital would be alerted once again, but that this would be no false alarm. And, yes, the good word came in in the middle of the month!

Preparation for Overseas Movement:

Headquarters Staff of the 33d General Hospital. From L to R: (front) S/Sgt Alexander Hoblock, T/5 Melvin H. Schillen, Col Arthur H. Nylen, Maj Marion C. Stith, Pfc Henry S. Townsend, Pfc Robert M. Fairbrother (back) S/Sgt Boyd M. Henry, T/4 Theodore A. Speier, T/Sgt Hugh L. McCadden, Pfc Marion W. Grant, Pfc Milton W. Dehner.

Jump-off day finally arrived at Fort Jackson. On Saturday afternoon, 19 June 1943, the organization entrained for its Staging Area, at Camp Patrick Henry, Oriana, Virginia (Staging Area for Hampton Roads Port of Embarkation –ed), only a handful of miles from Fort Eustis. It rained which certainly did not change the personnel’s mood filled with hollowness and uneasiness. Men and women were now packed with helmet, musette, leggings, and “A” and “B” bags, and started marching toward the trucks which would take them to the train. Since the train hadn’t arrived, the Officers marched the unit back to the hutments. When the final “go” signal came, everyone packed tightly into the open trucks, in the rain, and then started rolling once more. At 1500 hours the slow 20-hour trip began, up through South Carolina and on into the night and the following morning through North Carolina and Virginia. At Camp Patrick Henry the trucks halted alongside a platform where the 33d received permission to march off to their respective barracks. The 33d Gen Hosp unit and shipment code was “4119H SA7A”. Final preparations were made for overseas movement, with the personnel receiving multiple shots, checking equipment, following lectures, viewing training films and being loaded with foul-smelling clothing impregnated against gas attack, clothing of which they were all relieved at arrival overseas. There wasn’t much going on at the Staging Area except for movies, ARC visits, USO shows, and some softball and calisthenics, while awaiting embarkation orders.

Atlantic Crossing:

Lt. Colonel John F. Mosher, Executive Officer of the 33d General Hospital.

On 6 July 1943the Hospital boarded trains for the half hour ride to the Hampton Roads POE, Newport News, Virginia. ARC girls at the pier handed out refreshments and brass bands played. Men and women were checked off one-by-one before moving onto the gangplank and reaching the deck of the former Canadian-Pacific Liner “Empress of Japan”, rechristened “Empress of Scotland”, and converted into a troopship operated by the British. The 33d General comprised but a fraction of the thousands of passengers on board. The ship sailed the following morning, 7 July 1943. The experience was new for the majority of the passengers. Gradually the American shoreline receded fading into a misty purple before finally disappearing beyond the horizon.

Days were spent lounging around, talking, walking the decks, sunbathing, or just gazing over the rail at the ocean or at the churned wake of the ship as she zigzagged at short intervals to avoid enemy subs. Life boat drills were held at regular intervals and life jackets were ordered to be kept on hand at all times. Sometimes a lone aircraft would appear, circle the ship a few times, and go away. After three days on the seas, the news of the Invasion of Sicily came through (Operation “Husky”, 10 July 1943 –ed), causing many to think that would be the unit’s final destination. No one but the ship’s crew was allowed on deck at night and blackout conditions were in effect after sunset. Evenings were often spent playing cards and bingo. Practice air raid exercises, manning of battle stations, abandon ship drills, and false rumors never stopped. In spite of the official silence (censorship), many felt certain that Casablanca would be the journey’s end. A possible hint could have been the atabrine distributed twice during the voyage (causing a few people to become sick).
During the journey, it came as a surprise to discover the double standard of messing facilities of British boats. The Officers fared rather well but the Enlisted Men’s stomachs often protested. The food remained lousy, and some went without eating, rather than eat the stuff they were serving on board. Some men bought extra food from members of the crew, or went to the NAAFI, and compassionate Nurses sometimes brought back turkey sandwiches from their own mess hall. Chow was served three times a day; at 0700 – 1130 – and 1700 hours. There was no chinaware, everyone had to use his individual mess kit. Mess halls were always very crowded and smelly. Fresh water was only turned on for two hours each morning and two hours in the afternoon. Being very crowded below deck, sleeping was most uncomfortable, with not much place to stretch and very hot. The Red Cross workers distributed stationery, pencils, books, soap, razorblades, shoe cloths, and cigarettes. Officers and Nurses were lucky, and contrary to the Enlisted Men had a deck to themselves.

Nurses of the 33d General Hospital all set and packed, waiting to entrain at Casablanca, French Morocco, for the trip to Bizerte, Tunisia.

Officers’ Staff, 33d General Hospital
Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, MC – Commanding Officer
Lt. Colonel John F. Mosher, MC – Executive Officer
Colonel Eldridge H. Campbell, Jr., MC – Chief of Surgical Service
Colonel Francis F. Harrison, MC – Chief of Medical Service
Lt. Colonel Alice L. Spellman, ANC – Chief Nurse

From the first day out at sea until the day before landing in French Morocco, not one ship came within sight of the “Empress of Scotland”. The 33d Gen Hosp landed in Casablanca after an uneventful, unaccompanied trip overseas, crossing the Atlantic, and arriving one year to the day that the organization was officially activated.

French Morocco:

Land was sighted at 0905. Early 15 July 1943in the morning, a pilot in a converted yacht escorted the ship into the port of Casablanca. The personnel were sent below deck to collect their belongings. The 33d had been selected to debark first. There were some sunken ships in the harbor, a large number of nice modern buildings with tropical trees in the distance, and a large French battleship which appeared to be under repair. The unit with packs and belongings, gaped at by Arabs, descended the gangplank and formed ranks, it was overseas – the place: Casablanca, the country: French Morocco.

Time for ablutions. Officers and Nurses of the 33d General Hospital enroute to Bizerte, Tunisia, clean up taking a well-earned pause to refresh.

Upon arrival, the organization climbed into waiting trucks and began their ride to Camp Don B. Passage on the city’s outskirts. Arab road repair crews and kids stood aside and waved to the convoy, shouting “Smook! Smook!” and scrambled on the ground looking for whole cigarettes or ends thrown at them. At the camp, cold C-rations were opened and devoured hungrily. In fields of stifling, dusty red earth, the EM pitched their individual tent halves, and the Officers their pyramidals. A short distance away the Nurses were quartered in separate pyramid tents. A fine powder red dust soon permeated skins, hair, eyes, and nasal passages. It infiltrated clothing and was sometimes impossible to remove even after a soap-and-water scrubbing.
The third dose of atabrine (two were received on the ship -ed) was distributed after setting up. It knocked many people out, upsetting stomachs, and made men and women run to the latrines.

On the opposite side of the camp’s barbed wire boundary were impoverished locals who would do anything to secure a mattress cover, barracks bags, cigarettes, or candy. Some Hospital members did barter and bargained with them. Peddlers hawked fancy goods such as wallets, cigarette cases, and carpets, and shoeshine purveyors sold their services to the GIs.

Some of the Enlisted Men enroute to Bizerte, Tunisia. The men pause in front of one of the ill-famed “40 & 8s” (40 Hommes et 8 Chevaux) boxcars.

After arrival, the 33d General Hospital temporarily fell under the jurisdiction of the Medical Section, Atlantic Base Section (ABS) activated in Casablanca 30 December 1942 with Colonel Guy B. Denit as Surgeon (under overall control of NATOUSA Headquarters –ed). Little contact was made with the current Army Hospitals already on site, such as the 6th General Hospital – 50th Station Hospital – 56th Station Hospital 66th Station Hospital and 69th Station Hospital, all in or near Casablanca.

Tunisia:

9 August 1943 saw the 33d General Hospital breaking up camp and commencing the hellish, agonizing train ride to Bizerte, Tunisia. A few dozen luckier individuals went by motor convoy on 11 August. In the morning barracks bags were collected, at noon the tents were struck and the area policed. The beating of the North African sun created short tempers and this coupled with the fact that some men had had too much wine, resulted in some confusion and fisticuff displays. Trucks carried the first groups to the railway station and a beat up train with the ill-famed “40 & 8” cars. Manure first had to be swept out before they could be filled some two dozen men apiece. The Officers rode in a shabby coach, and the Nurses too had some similar coaches to themselves. Food for the journey consisted of cold rations. After eating them cold, they began to upset stomachs, and one had to be pretty hungry to continue eating the stuff. During the stops it was possible to buy grapes or melons from the Arabs, fresh eggs though were a rarity, but by trading rations with some British Eight Army troops on their way too, tinned beef was obtained, which unfortunately turned out to be a hardly worthwhile transaction. Many subsisted almost exclusively on dry biscuits, candy, powdered cocoa or coffee, or dissolvable lemonade, a few lumps of sugar, and those circular pieces of hardtack.
An Oran-bound carload of WACs was hitched to the train and traveled with the unit part of the way, and when they got off they left such delicacies as loaves of white bread, canned peaches, pineapple chunks, fruit cocktail, and jam. This was heaven!

Air evacuation by C-47 being prepared at Sidi Ahmed Airport, Tunisia. This evacuation was handled by the 802d MAETS (Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron).

The troop train progressed slowly through the glaring, agonizing heat of the day, and the coolness of the night, across barren Moroccan and Algerian countryside. Dust respirators came in handy, certainly when going through the innumerable choking tunnels. At times the train would be delayed for hours for one reason or another. Here and there it would stop for water, necessary for engine and men, and always scarce. To be able to wash hands and faces with sometimes limited amounts of hot water drained from the engine would be good fortune. The trick was to rush over, fill the steel pot with the stuff and carry it back to the car for ablutions. Stops were arranged to take on drinking water which had to last for a day. It was difficult to sleep, certainly for the EM, who had to try and get some comfort lying in every possible position covered with a single blanket with arms and legs sprawled in all directions, and with no light. From time to time, the train stopped, to let pass another one (there were many single track lines and too few sidings -ed) with French colonial troops, military equipment, or Afrika Korps prisoners on their way to internment. From one of the railroad stations outside Algiers the passengers could catch a sight of the city and the first good glimpse of the Mediterranean Sea.

As the train neared Bizerte, hundreds of recently captured Italian and German troops (Axis losses amounted to some 620,000 casualties and prisoners –ed) moved past the train on foot to the rear. The Italians seemed more or less happy, exchanging greetings with some of the boys who could speak Italian, while the Germans mostly remained quiet and more disciplined, often looking the other way.
Around 15 August, the cross-country ride came to a stop. On arrival, trucks were waiting and drove the men and women to a barren, gently sloping hillside covered with rocks, stones, cow dung, and heat-browned stubby vegetation. Dismayed by the primitive surroundings but too knocked out by the dreadful journey, no more elaborate preparations were made, and the personnel spread blankets on the rough ground and went to sleep.

The day was 15 August 1943 and the official scene of the 33d General Hospital’s first activity as an overseas medical installation. The site was approximately some half dozen miles south of Bizerte, Eastern Base Section Headquarters (EBS, activated 20 February 1943 in Constantine, Algeria, and responsible to NATOUSA, and eventually moved to Bizerte in August 1943 –ed). Hardly a mile behind the crest of the hill and down in a small valley lay a small Arab village, not far away were some French farmhouses and a vineyard. Down the hill, in front and across the main highway leading into Bizerte were a US Engineer Depot, Sidi Ahmed Airport, and Lake Bizerte, and further across the lake, was the town of Ferryville. Aircraft kept taking off and land and flew over the men’s heads; this was to become the Hospital’s site for a full nine months.

Partial panoramic view of the 33d General Hospital and the Triage Center near Bizerte, Tunisia.

33d General Hospital , Tunisia
Bizerte – 15 September 1943 > 10 May 1944

The morning of 16 August was spent pitching pup tents, smoothing out the grounds. Sanitary facilities were provided next, in the form of straddle trench latrines. Shortly after nightfall came the first air raid. The only protection at this time was the steel helmet, nothing else, the method was to watch the skies, stare at them, and hope for the best. The place seemed to be in the dead center of a series of antiaircraft batteries and searchlights. It was discovered that the raids were usually aimed at the ships in Lake Bizerte and at the outer harbor. Actually the danger was not so much the enemy bombers but the pieces of flak that rained down (during its stay on this hillside, a few British personnel and Arab civilians were treated at the Hospital for wounds caused by jagged chunks and particles of steel –ed). After experiencing the first enemy night raid, slit trenches were dug for protection. The 33d became gradually accustomed to the many raids, and the urge was always to get out of the tents to see what went on instead of hiding from them. Some enemy planes were shot down, but Allied ammunition depots and oil dumps suffered too. No patients were received before September, as the site wasn’t ready. An open mess was constructed consisting of some field ranges, chow lines then formed, and after collecting the necessary food in the mess kits, everyone had to sit on the ground or just stand around. Flies were always present and it became a race to see who would consume the more food. The constant wind did temper the heat but at the same time whipped up annoying sand storms to add to the general discomfort. A dysentery outbreak, caused by the straddle trenches, the unscreened mess, and the swarms of flies, affected hundreds of personnel. The situation was partly remedied when mess halls and kitchens were screened in. Water had to be hauled by trailers from a waterpoint near Ferryville (where more Army Hospitals were located –ed), bathing and washing took place in steel pots, and a mobile shower unit was only brought in later. Soon some Engineers appeared on the scene and the proper installation work was begun. The Hospital’s supplies had come in from the States via convoy to Oran, Algeria, and 3 Officers were dispatched to the harbor to check on the property. All equipment was to be loaded on railcars for shipment from Oran to Bizerte, and soon truck after truck laden with crated supplies began climbing up the hill disgorging their contents. The 33d Gen Hosp was now under control of the Eastern Base Section Surgeon, Colonel Myron P. Rudolph, and with the extension of the war in the Mediterranean EBS had grown to become the largest and most important medical-related organization in the region because of its close proximity to Sicily and Italy.

Group photo of the Commanding Officer, 33d General Hospital, and some of his Staff. Photo taken during the organization's stay in Bizerte, Tunisia, September 1943 - May 1944.

Group photo of the Commanding Officer, 33d General Hospital, and some of his Staff. Photo taken during the organization’s stay in Bizerte, Tunisia, September 1943 – May 1944.

Just before moving out, patients were received from the own command. The inevitable dysentery attacked and some 13 people were hard hit. The first shelter for patients was a huge tent fly with hospital beds quickly unpacked and set up. When the strong winds blew over the fly it was decided to move the sick to one of the nearby Station Hospitals where they could receive better protection and be taken care of more adequately.  Gradually, more and better equipment started coming in, and a mobile shower unit was most welcome after spending weeks using a helmet of water a day for trying to keep both one’s person and clothing clean. Regular Army latrines were completed in the same period.

After some days and weeks as if by magic, a Hospital of large tents, prefabs, and Nissen huts burgeoned from the earth and started covering the hillside. The Hospital literally mushroomed. Ward tents with a varying capacity from 14 to 28 beds were erected in rows, Nissen huts were built for the Administration, Receiving, and Disposition Offices, the Operating Rooms, and the X-Ray Department. All tents were laid out in four neat avenues, 22 to an avenue. One tent was selected for a Recreation Hall An adequate water supply was tapped from a nearby source and large porous jugs were purchased to store quantities of drinking water. Scavenging was necessary and many sinks, boilers, furniture, cabinets, and other useful articles were collected and brought in from some ruined buildings of Bizerte, through the so-called “moonlight” channels. Engineers helped by adapting and modifying a woodpile into tables, chairs, and tent floors. The personnel started building trays out of discarded material, small tins were used to protect thermometers, forceps, and solutions, cans were cut down to serve unlimited purposes, mess kits were sacrificed for instrument pans or vaseline containers, cleaned out bullet or shell casings were salvaged and transformed into tubes. The unit’s site would later be designated as the one just outside “Hospital Road”. The reason was the concentration of Army Hospitals spread over the Bizerte area including such organizations as the 43d Station Hospital – 53d Station Hospital – 56th Evacuation Hospital – 57th Station Hospital – 78th Station Hospital and 81st Station Hospital.
A provisional Sanitary Company composed of Italian PWs captured in Africa, including their Officers, was assigned to the Hospital and distributed for duty among the various departments.

Signpost indicating the Hospital’s site near Bizerte, Tunisia.

On 13 September, patient number 1; an Air Corps Lieutenant with an aching back was admitted for treatment. On 15 September 1943, just one month after its arrival in North Africa, the first real load of patients was received at the 33d General Hospital. They numbered 275 and were casualties from the Salerno landings in Italy (Operation “Avalanche”, 9 September 1943 –ed). Nurses worked with Ward Officers and Ward Enlisted personnel in the preceding days to not only set up the wards but to improvise extensively in order to be prepared for adequate care for the sick and wounded. Visits to nearby hospitals already in operation helped gather ideas and methods to best get along with the equipment on hand. Nurses and ARC workers spent many days in making sheets, drapes, muslin covers, dressings, etc. for use in the Operating Rooms. Many patients came in with very few, if any, personal possessions. Basic uniform, toilet, and comfort articles were supplied by both local Quartermaster and American Red Cross organizations. The ARC personnel were called upon to provide wash cloths. There were bath towels but however nothing to wash the patients with. Eventually a supply of small towels was received from a Red Cross warehouse and cut up into squares to serve as wash cloths. Soldiers waiting to be treated were supplied with candy, cigarettes, and coffee.

By that time construction had progressed, roads had been built, electricity installed, and additional works continued without seriously interfering reception and treatment of patients whose numbers started mounting rapidly. The census rose so quickly that authorization was received to increase the bed capacity from 1,000 to 1,500. At first, ward tent floors were graveled, but later on concrete floors were laid, improving both comfort and cleanliness. Hospital linen, bed sheets, pillow cases, pajamas, etc. were processed at a Quartermaster Laundry Company in Mateur, about 20 miles distant. As there was no laundry facility for personnel, Major William B. J. Smith, DC, salvaged two old French washing machines and after considerable improvising a reasonably satisfactory laundry was established. Assignment for the ANC Officers usually ran about 1 Nurse per 17 medical patients; and 1 Nurse per 14 surgical patients, for a 24-hour period. The nursing care of neuro-surgical patients was the heaviest service and represented 3.7 hours per day for 1 Nurse. Tours of duty represented 8 hours during day, and 10 hours during night.

33d General Hospital – 1943 Statistics
Total Number of Physical Examinations
September – 756
October – 897
November – 978
December – 1,119
Total Number of Vaccinations
September – 96
October – 70
November – 24
December – 44
Total Number of Immunizations
September – 493
October – 542
November – 710
December – 165
Total Number of Patient Treatments
September – 1,492
October – 1,699
November – 1,437
December – 1,335

One day four ward tents appeared on the Hospital grounds. They formed a “Triage Center”, which became the nucleus for the entire hospital evacuation system of Bizerte, Tunisia. Not too far from the docks, only one mile from Sidi Ahmed Airport, and 300 yards from the 2670 Motor Ambulance Company (Provisional). It soon started operating with additional support of 6 Nurses and 6 Enlisted Men on DS from the 33d General. All the sick and wounded evacuated by either air transport (through the 802d Medical Air Evacuation Transport Squadron –ed) or Hospital Ship (through Bizerte with assistance of the 8th Port Surgeon’s Office –ed) from Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica, passed through the Center as soon as they arrived in North Africa. Incoming patients were sorted at the Triage Center according to their ailments and transferred by ambulance to hospitals specializing in the proper treatment for such cases. All neuro-surgical, maxillo-facial, spinal cord, cranio-cerebral, and eye injury cases were received and treated at the 33d, which became specialized in such cases.

Pharmacy personnel, 33d General Hospital, Bizerte, Tunisia. From L to R: (kneeling) T/5 Joseph Command (front) T/3 Norbert Sturm, T/3 George Love, T/4 Stanley V. Kraft (back) T/4 George S. Quartin, Pvt James J. Peerce, Pfc Sol Koenig.

Bizerte was a wreck, having been well plastered by Allied bombers when the enemy still occupied Tunisia. Its deserted buildings stood with sheared-off walls and caved in roofs and its civilian population had been evacuated. Almost none but military personnel were seen in its streets from which the rubble was in process of being cleared. Sightseers could spend some time in Tunis, Sidi Bou Said, visit Museums, ancient ruins, eat in restaurants, or go swimming. A pass from the Town Major Office was required to visit the Casbah which entrances were guarded by MPs.

The dismal rainy season began with the onset of fall, hailstones fell, rains poured down, and the parched and dusty fields in and around the camp took on a sudden green hue which unfortunately did not suffice to compensate for the marrow-penetrating cold and the thick mud. Drainage on the hill was sufficient to evacuate surface water, but those unfortunate individuals who were caught without flooring found rivulets of water and mud flowing through their tents, damaging personal belongings. Rivulets soon turned into torrents, until the Engineers provided all living quarters with wooden floors. It was however no fun at all to be compelled to go to work through the mud even in high shoes, leggings, or rubber boots. The thick mud clung to footgear making each successive step heavier. Boot scrapers were set up outside the tents and hutments but bringing the mud inside was unavoidable. Several ward tents were blown away and therefore wooden doors were affixed to the tent entrances. It was often cold as coal supply was far from adequate, also fuel was a problem, with priority going to the ward tent stoves, which left very little or none for the personnel quarters. In the end all wards and quarters received oil burners.

Isolation Ward personnel, 33d General Hospital. From L to R: (front row) 1st Lt Helen P. Kavanaugh, Lt Col Hermon C. Gordinier (middle row) Pfc Ervin F. Mills, Pfc Wademan Nichols, 1st Lt Florine E. Butler, Pfc George W. Flick (back row) T/4 Ernest J. Ray, 1st Lt Sylvia Root, T/4 James O. Eason, 1st Lt Irma B. Kocik, T/5 Clemens H. Emmerick, T/5 Edgel Collins.

14,000 V-Mail greetings forms were used by the Hospital’s patients and personnel during the Season. They had been mimeographed from a Christmas drawing made by an artist patient. Although news of another movement and change of station was known, the Yule-tide spirit started taking over and some special ideas were worked out for the coming Christmas period. Within the next few days the Recreation Tent under control of the American Red Cross became the base of operations. Ambulatory patients swarmed in and out, exchanging ideas or requests for suggestions for decorating the Wards. Many a use was made of cotton, tongue depressors, red flannel bandages, and toilet paper, but no one really objected. Decoration and gift kits had meanwhile arrived, sourcing a mass production of gifts and their appropriate wrapping. A “Sad Sack” was made of fatigue cloth and stuffed with sand, with head, hands, and feet carved out of G.I. soap. A Christmas Show was put on by a group of young RAF men, some of whom had been former patients of the 33d. They concluded with Christmas Carols and other songs with the audience joining them. The unit’s Chaplains led a group of singers made up of Doctors, Nurses, and EM, and the ARC staff distributed their gifts together with candy, cookies, and cigarettes to the patients. Christmas Day – 25 December 1943 – was really celebrated the traditional way with a turkey dinner and all its trimmings. The US Navy contributed a large supply of hundreds of little gifts containing cigarettes, candy, playing cards, etc. brought to the Hospital by a group of fourteen sailors from a nearby Naval Base.

33d General Hospital – 1943 Statistics
Total Number of Admissions
September – 1,707 patients
October – 2,391 patients
November – 1,673 patients
December – 1,657 patients

Total Number of Dispositions
September – 396 patients
October – 1,070 patients
November – 1,673 patients
December – 890 patients

In December 1943 with hospital facilities rapidly building up in Italy, the influx of casualties into North African installations declined sharply. There was a large movement of patients during the two last weeks of January 1944 as hospitals in the Naples area were being cleared in preparation for the Anzio landings (Operation “Shingle”, 22 January 1944 –ed). Consequently, the major burden of ComZ Hospitals after that period would be carried in Italy. It was clear that the 33d would move to Italy.
1 January 1944 came on with a rush of strong winds, sleet, and hail. Casualties included some ward tents, the Officers’ club tent, and a few latrines. The Engineers built a large Romney hut for use as a recreation hall, where movies and USO shows could be given and dances held. The first overseas weddings among members of the 33d were celebrated in January. Captain Joseph D. Sullivan, MC, and First Lieutenant Dorothy Schwartz, ANC, were married, closely followed by Captain Benjamin M. Volk, MC, and First Lieutenant Mary Richtmyer, ANC. A “honeymoon” row of two pyramidal tents was set up to house the couples when they returned from their trips to Tunis, and Palermo, Sicily, respectively.

Receiving Office personnel, 33d General Hospital. From L to R: (front) Pfc James Vokac, Pvt Joseph Herzfeld, Pfc Ralph K. Keesing, S/Sgt Leigh H. Kio, Pfc Henry S. Townsend (back) Pvt Walter J. Sturtevant, Cpl Robert H. Mallory, Pvt Robert Krieger.

With spring making its appearance a bulldozer and a scraper went to work on a lower portion of the hill and laid out an athletic field. Basketball, soccer and softball teams were formed. The Italians at work with the Sanitary Company organized a soccer team too. Teams formed of American, British, and Italian units stationed nearby organized games which attracted quite a few spectators.

At the stroke of midnight, 1 May 1944, no further patients were admitted to the 33d General Hospital. Those remaining were transferred or evacuated and then began the rat race of dismantling, crating and packing equipment and supplies in preparation for a change of station. The last patients finally left on 9 May 1944. It must be noted that the total number of patients admitted in North Africa amounted to 10,307.

Italy:

On 19 May 1944, most of the Officers, all the Nurses, and 140 Enlisted Men heaved their barracks bags onto lined up trucks, climbed in, and began their final descent of the Hill. At the docks in Bizerte they boarded the USAHS “Shamrock”, Hospital Ship to the tune of their own band. Also on board was the staff of a French Military Hospital which had been operating in Ferryville. The ship headed across the Mediterranean that afternoon, and passing through the Strait between Capri and the mainland, arrived in Naples harbor 24 hours later. Being a Hospital Ship, it traveled in a straight course, unarmed and fully illuminated at night, protected by the Geneva Convention.
Several days later, a second group followed with the organic vehicles in a Liberty Ship which sailed in convoy with many other vessels, taking four days for the trip. This time it consisted of a group of 50 EM and 2 Officers, and the only noteworthy incident was the narrow escape of two 6 x 6 2 ½-ton trucks which were almost dumped overboard in the Bay of Naples when it was time to unload.
On 25 May 1944, the third section hit the decks of an Indian troopship “Takaliwa”. Several Officers and a group of EM comprised this movement. They joined another convoy of ships plowing through the Mediterranean reaching Naples two days after departing Bizerte.
Another few days passed and the fourth and last group of the personnel, 4 Officers and Enlisted Men left Tunisia on board a Liberty Ship, part of a huge convoy. Somewhere east of Malta the convoy split, one part continuing eastward and the portion with the 33d General Hospital men picking up air coverage, veering towards Sicily where it halted for one day. It then fell in with another convoy, passed through the Straits of Messina spearheaded by some minesweepers. On 5 June 1944, the last stragglers dropped anchor in the Bay of Naples after a six-day cruise. The 33d Gen Hosp had now arrived on the European continent.

Packing up for leaving North Africa, almost ready to move to Italy.

The boldly conceived, modern structures covered with heroic murals which stood at Bagnoli, outside Naples, were on the site of the Fair Grounds intended by Benito Mussolini as the setting for a World’s Fair, but the war had knocked his plans askew. The location was now a US Medical Center where General and Station Hospitals were using the pre-existing buildings pitching their own tents in addition. The Hospital, however, was not to operate here; this was just another Staging Area until orders would come to move on elsewhere. The Enlisted personnel lived at the Medical Center, many of them being assigned on DS to Hospitals, while the Officers and Nurses were billeted at the adjacent Terme di Agnano, a spa, together with the Commissioned personnel of the 21st General Hospital. With the exception of the office staff, all the Nurses were soon sent on TD to some of the nearby Hospitals, with 15 of them being sent to the Anzio Beachhead. The city of Naples was riotously gay and pitiful as it lay stricken with hunger and poverty. After a while the ARC people had provided pleasant clubs for everyone and conducted tours of both the city and vicinity. Shopping was fun. Pompeii attracted many and the more ambitious ones among the personnel ventured a climb to the crater’s edge on Mount Vesuvius. Also the Solfatara volcano was worth a visit.

On 30 May 1944, all Officers and Enlisted Men not on TD with other medical organizations moved to Camp “Slattery” on the shores of Lake Fusaro, eight miles from the Medical Center. This is where the last group to leave Bizerte would join the unit. Staging operations continued when Rome fell on 4 June 1944, followed by D-Day in Normandy on 6 June 1944. Everyone kept his ears glued to the radio for invasion news and was anxious to know when the organization would eventually move.

Major heading of the Stars and Stripes "We're in Rome", Vol. 1, No. 1, published in Rome, June 5, 1944, announcing the liberation of the "Eternal City" (Liberation Day June 4, 1944).

Major heading of the Stars and Stripes “We’re in Rome”, Vol. 1, No. 1, published in Rome, June 5, 1944, announcing the liberation of the “Eternal City” (Liberation Day June 4, 1944).

On 10 June 1944, an advance party of 2 Officers and 20 EM departed for Rome. The equipment had meanwhile been transported from Naples harbor to a spot near Lake Fusaro where it was checked and re-loaded on cargo trucks and sent to Rome. Personnel on duty elsewhere were recalled and the group moved northward in several truck convoys, passing through devastated towns and cities lining the path of the retreating Germans. The final party arrived in Rome on 18 June, completing the movement, and making the 33d the first General Hospital to enter the “Eternal City”.
The Ospedale Regina Elena, was only a few minutes ride off Highway No. 1, or the Via Aurelia. It had been a civilian hospital in peacetime and a German military establishment until a few days before Rome was captured. There was mute evidence of a hasty enemy departure, in the form of littered German documents, book pages, rubbish, helmets, garbage cans, empty bottles, and it became apparent that some of the hospital fixtures had been deliberately sabotaged to prevent immediate and efficient use of the premises. The repairs, adjustments, and installation works were so rapid, that the unit was able to receive its first patients on 21 June 1944. The move was made within the expansion program of the Peninsular Base Section (PBS) and comprised the 6th and 12th General Hospitals, later joined by the 73d and 114th Station Hospitals which arrived in Rome 5 July 1944. Also elements of the 37th General Hospital set up in the area.

General view of the buildings in Rome housing the 33d General Hospital. Photo taken in summer of 1944.

General view of the buildings in Rome housing the 33d General Hospital. Photo taken in summer of 1944.

Even an expansion was carried out due to the transfer of a great number of Hospitals which required an increased bed capacity at the 33d. This was accomplished by erecting prefabricated buildings and setting up ward tents. The rapid turnover of patients and their high census taxed the staff to capacity in the weeks that followed the opening, and a number of Medical Officers and Nurses from other units were therefore placed on TD with the organization to assist with the increased activities. The Officers were housed mainly in three separate Italian villas and one small group of them lived in the main hospital building. The Nurses took up quarters in one wing of the main building, while the Enlisted Men set up pyramid tents in an adjoining horticultural area. A Company of Alpini soldiers together with its own Officers (Italians were now co-belligerents and Allies –ed) was assigned as a service unit and lived in the field beyond the EM.
Rome appeared as bad as Naples as far as food was concerned. Hungry men, women, and children would stand waiting with containers in hand to scavenge any food before it was thrown into the garbage cans. It was shocking and almost unbelievable that hunger in the large city could become so intense. The Germans left the city without much destruction, except for the railway station and some shell damage to the southern outskirts. The buildings had been spared. A twenty-minute bus ride to the city’s center helped sightseeing and Rome quickly became a paradise of which everyone took full advantage.

OR of the 33d General Hospital at the “Ospedale Regina Elena”, Rome, Italy. Four simultaneous operations could take place in one and the same room.

33d General Hospital, Italy
Rome – 21 June 1944 > 24 September 1944

The period 16-22 July 1944 would become the busiest in the history of the 33d General Hospital with 1,190 patients being admitted. At midnight 22 July 1944, there were exactly 2,102 patients in the Hospital, the highest number cared for in any one time.
In July 1944, Secretary of War, Henry L. Stimson, visited the 33d General Hospital, accompanied by The Surgeon General, Major General Norman T. Kirk, and The Surgeon General, NATOUSA, Major General Morrison C. Stayer (who replaced Major General Frederick A. Blesse, 1 March 1944 –ed). The following August, Catholic Archbishop Francis J. Spellman celebrated Mass in the Hospital courtyard.

33d General Hospital – 1944 Statistics
Total Number of Physical Examinations
January – 980
February – 990
March – 991
April – 913
May – 342
June – 700
July – 628
August – 674
September – 687
October – 844
November – 864
December – 1,121
Total Number of Vaccinations
January – 672
February – 76
March – 2
April – 127
May – 12
June – 0
July – 0
August – 20
September – 0
October – 6
November – 53
December – 12
Total Number of Immunizations
January – 361
February – 285
March – 215
April – 516
May – 674
June – 10
July – 0
August – 33
September – 0
October – 23
November – 888
December – 19
Total Number of Patient Treatments
January – 1,045
February – 897
March – 876
April – 988
May – 127
June – 574
July – 1,779
August – 591
September – 239
October – 1,187
November – 2,228
December – 2,433

Partial view of the expansion area and American Red Cross building of the 33d General Hospital, Rome, Italy.

At the end of August 1944, the 33d was re-organized under a new T/O into a 1,500-bed hospital unit, although there were times previous to this when the patient census exceeded 2,000 (in July 1944, the bed capacity had even expanded to 2,300, being one of the busiest months overseas –ed). After work eased off somewhat, groups of Enlisted personnel were given passes permitting them to spend several days at the US Army Rest Center in Rome, originally intended as the Olympic Stadium for the 1940 international contest which was never held. Quite a few Officers and Nurses seized the opportunity for a short leave at Sorrento or Capri.
On 14 September 1944 instructions were received from PBS to admit no more patients after that date. The following week mass evacuation began in preparation for closing the Hospital and on 24 September the last of the patients were gone (in fact the 33d was de facto inactivated on 20 September 1944 –ed). At the close of the month, the Hospital was dismantled and the equipment packed and crated. With the cessation of operations 5 surgical teams were assigned for TD with the Fifth United States Army. The overall decrease and contraction of hospital facilities in MTOUSA and PBS linked to the Redeployment and Readjustment of Personnel, finally led to the complete closure of the 33d Gen Hosp in Rome on 1 October 1945.
The total number of patients received and cared for during the unit’s stay in Rome, Italy, was 6,380 (total admissions would pass the 29,100 mark early 1945, with daily admission of patients averaging from 200 to 250 sick and wounded during peak periods; in May of 1945, this was to decrease to about 40 to 50 patients a day, mostly including non-battle injuries and diseases –ed).

September 1944 – while in Rome, the Roman Catholic Chaplain arranged for a special privilege. A private audience was organized with Pope Pius XII in he Vatican. The Pontiff gave a general benediction and addressed the members of the Hospital in English. Some of his most remarkable statements were: “Your branch of the service as a whole may be overlooked by the multitudes, but it is all important!” – “It is nice to note that American science and intelligence have contributed to saving so many lives.” – “Let the interest and compassion Christ showed for the sick and suffering be your inspiration when you have long and arduous hours of work.”

Colonel Arthur H. Nylen and Staff in front of the 33d General Hospital main building in Rome (the civilian is Professor Rafael Bastanelli). Photo taken during the unit's stay in Rome, Italy, June 1944 - September 1944.

Colonel Arthur H. Nylen and Staff in front of the 33d General Hospital main building in Rome (the civilian is Professor Rafael Bastanelli). Photo taken during the unit’s stay in Rome, Italy, June 1944 – September 1944.

Change of Station:

An advance detail of 7 Officers and 71 Enlisted Men left on 1 October 1944for the Leghorn area. This was the first of a continuous movement by motor convoy and rail transportation of both hospital personnel and equipment that would continue until completion on 7 October. Stretching nine miles north from Livorno to the small town of Marina di Pisa, at the mouth of the Arno River, was a coastal highway separated from the Ligurian Sea by a wide sandy beach. There were the buildings of a former Fascist Youth Center which was taken over by the organization. Originally intended as a kind of summer boarding school, it looked gloomy, depressing, and cheerless in October as the rainy season had just begun. Unfortunately the beach was still mined and fenced in with barbed wire. A string of rude, German-built, wood-supported dugouts lay between the minefields and the buildings, and great sand dunes were everywhere. On the other side of the highway was pine forest, previously a hunting reserve for Italian aristocracy.

33d General Hospital , Italy
Livorno – 12 October 1944 > 20 September 1945

Partial view of the largest ward of the 33d General Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Headquarters opened 4 October 1944 and the same day about half of the Nurses went on temporary duty to other hospitals, only returning later in the month. The job of repairing innumerable defects and making a host of alterations and adaptations in these buildings was a Herculean task. While the works were still in progress, the first patients were admitted, this was 12 October 1944. Around 15-16 October, the 5 surgical teams terminated their duties with the Fifth US Army and returned to the new hospital site.
At the outset, pyramid tents were erected haphazardly among the trees in the forest, but the rains soon transformed the area into a morass in which the men waded ankle deep. This was remedied by the Engineers who bulldozed a large clearing free of vegetation enabling the tents to be arranged in neat rows in a level place which remained relatively dry. Besides prefabs and ward tents, the main hospital buildings numbered three; the surgical, the medical, and a series of seven smaller buildings interconnected by roofed corridors and used as wards and quarters for Commissioned personnel. Two separate small buildings furnished additional Officers quarters. The Alpini who had joined, lived in pyramidal tents along the beach, north of the Hospital area proper. Since the Italians were now openly serving on the Allied side, it was foreseen that during any daylight raids by the German Luftwaffe the members of the Italian Company would remain at their regularly assigned places of duty. During night raids, the Alpini assigned to the OR were to report for duty, and all others would remain in their own area and await orders of the American Detachment Commander.

Aerial view taken from a Piper Cub showing the buildings comprising the 33d General Hospital at Livorno (Leghorn), Italy. West of the location was a beach and east of the site a dense wood. Photo taken during the unit's stay, October 1944 - September 1945.

Aerial view taken from a Piper Cub showing the buildings comprising the 33d General Hospital at Livorno (Leghorn), Italy. West of the location was a beach and east of the site a dense wood. Photo taken during the unit’s stay, October 1944 – September 1945.

The city of Leghorn (Livorno, in Italian –ed) appeared rather drab under the rain. At that time it was the major port supplying Fifth US Army and prior to its capture in July 1944, it had been subjected to extensive battering from the air. Other medical units had either followed the 33d or were set up in the vicinity of Livorno: the 7th Station Hospital – 55th Station Hospital – 64th General Hospital – 81st Station Hospital – and the 114th Station Hospital. Others would follow in December 1944.

Partial view of the medical buildings housing the Administration of the 33d General Hospital, Livorno (Leghorn), Italy. The location further included Receiving, Laboratory, Pharmacy, Post Office, Post Exchange, and the ARC Recreation room for patients.

As fall progressed, the weather turned for the worse, with winds beating against the Hospital now assuming the dimensions of gales. Work began in November on hospital expansion into a series of double ward tents, but had to be stopped because the structures were unable to withstand the terrible buffeting of the sea winds. Single ward tents were therefore favored with reinforced wooden side walls, and a winterization program was also completed.
The 33d Gen Hosp command issued special directions with regard to the Purple Heart Medal (or ribbon) awarded to their patients. It stipulated, that in order to insure that all patients deserving a Purple Heart or an OLC  were duly recommended for these awards, while a patient at the Hospital, a Purple Heart request form was to be placed in the FMR jacket of every battle casualty, when admitted to the 33d, by the Registrar. The form was to be completed on the ward for all cases eligible for the award, and in all doubtful cases. It was to be signed by the respective Ward Officer, and forwarded to Hospital Headquarters as soon as possible following admission of the patient. If the patient proved ineligible for the award, the form was to be extracted from the FMR and placed in  Ward Blank Form stock. If the patient had not actually received the PH award in another hospital (after applying for it), a new application form was to be forwarded when under treatment at the 33d General Hospital.

Signpost along the sports field ("Victory Field") of the 33d General Hospital, designating the organization's Baseball Team, the "Ramblers" and Softball Team, the "Dodgers".

Signpost along the sports field (“Victory Field”) of the 33d General Hospital, designating the organization’s Baseball Team, the “Ramblers” and Softball Team, the “Dodgers”.

At Christmas, candy and toys donated by the 33d personnel were distributed by the Chaplains to needy kids in the vicinity. The holiday season featured dances, parties, and shows for both the Officers and Enlisted Men. Wards were decorated in the spirit of the season with pine trees becoming Christmas trees. On 27 December 1944, the Red Cross Auditorium was the scene of a dance and buffet supper sponsored by the Detachment of Patients and attended by many WACs and a group of local girls for whom transportation was arranged to and from Livorno. The Hospital’s band supplied the music. Two later dances and collations were organized early 1945 for the EM by the Leghorn ARC at its “Victory Club”, located in a former palace of Principe Borghese.

33d General Hospital – 1944 Statistics
Total Number of Admissions
January – 1,356 patients
February – 647 patients
March – 411 patients
April – 475 patients
May – 0 patients
June – 1,135 patients
July – 3,569 patients
August – 1,256 patients
September – 420 patients
October – 2,284 patients
November – 1,529 patients
December – 1,450 patients

Total Number of Dispositions
January – 640 patients
February – 502 patients
March – 273 patients
April – 309 patients
May – 77 patients
June – 205 patients
July – 2,162 patients
August – 1,316 patients
September – 1,031 patients
October – 239 patients
November – 958 patients
December – 1,029 patients

Nurses Quarters, 33d General Hospital, Livorno, Italy.

January 1945 saw the hesitant beginnings of “The Corpsman” the 33d General Hospital’s weekly news sheet, which started as a simple mimeographed pamphlet and later evolved into a four-page printed paper. It was the official newspaper published weekly by the Information & Education Office, 33d General Hospital, APO 424, US Army, with Captain H. E. Miller as the Publication Officer, and Sergeants Ed Fleischer and Julius T. Jones, Editors (The Corpsman received a Commendation from Lt. Colonel Daniel J. Leary, PBS I & E Officer, for having reported in an extra edition dated 13 April 1945, the death of President F. D. Roosevelt –ed).
From February through April 1945, 6 NCOs received a commission as Second Lieutenants in the Medical Administrative Corps. The promoted Enlisted personnel were: Master Sergeant Joseph F. Farry – Sergeant Leonard J. Klonowski – Master Sergeant Thomas Loud – Technical Sergeant Ambrose F. Roden – Staff Sergeant Angelo F. Torrisi – and Staff Sergeant Edward J. Trowske. They were subsequently relieved of their assignments and sent to serve in other hospitals. On 23 April it was announced that 18 ANC Officers were to be promoted to 1st Lieutenant. They included: Hazel Ames – Marion L. Aylesworth – Elizabeth F. Cowley – Mary B. Cullen – Ruth E. Everest – Orpha Harvey – Anne C. Kern – Julia E. McCall – Marjorie McDonough – Rose C. Murphy – Bessie P. Pillow – Helen V. Raymond – Nettie A. Sackett – Esther R. Schaefer – Margaret K. Thatcher – Mary J. Volk – Sarah E. Wilkins – Madolin E. Yerdon. Quite a number of Enlisted Men and other ranks would receive a promotion on the occasion of V-E Day. With the arrival of more clement weather in March, a program of outdoor recreation for convalescent patients was started. Under the supervision of Captain Ralph M. Myerson, MC, with plans and training directed by Second Lieutenant Jack A. Creech, MAC, the ward tent expansion area, vacant for several months, was set up as a convalescent reconditioning center for patients preparing for return to duty. The routine comprised supervised recreation, physical exercises, military drill, short marches, and daily orientation classes. The program served to clear beds and provided a central point for the disposition of patients.

A forested area was cleared and smoothed off for baseball and softball diamonds, and areas adjoining the hospital buildings were converted to volleyball and badminton courts. A Platoon of Italian soldiers partially demined the stretch of beach, which unfortunately caused many shattered windows through the hospital already badly depleted of glass panes. Completion of mine clearance was effected by PBS Engineer personnel thus making the beach area available for use during the warmer months with the safe portion properly demarcated by barbed wire. The place had now become a veritable miniature Riviera with facilities for games, sports, swimming, and rest in beach furniture, including beach umbrellas. Even life rafts and life guards were provided. One of the large recreation halls in the medical building served the ARC needs. A large stage had been constructed to present ENSA and USO shows, movies, and plays to patients and personnel. Artistic skills were encouraged and a handicrafts shop was soon thriving.

V-E Day arrived and was greeted by an exultant organization, with the “Club 33” serving free drinks and organizing a free dance to celebrate the event. Ship sirens in Leghorn let go and searchlight beams chased one another around the sky. The war was over in Europe! By 23 April 1945, The Corpsman proudly announced that an estimated 30 to 35 members of the 33d General Hospital would become eligible for the new Medical Badge. This  was confirmed by 1st Lieutenant Milton Singer, Personnel Officer. In accordance with Army Regulations, Colonel Arthur L. Nylen, CO, presented the Silver Star to Private First Class Harvey Erbs (patient of ward S-11), a rifleman with the 86th Mountain Infantry Regiment, 10th Mountain Division, for gallantry in action. He also presented a Bronze Star to Private James R. Payron (patient of ward B-1), also of the 86th Mountain Infantry Regiment, for valor in combat. Additional Bronze Stars were presented to Private First Class William D. Reid (patient of ward C-2), a rifleman with the 85th Mountain Infantry Regiment; Private Karl A. Metzger, a Company messenger with the 133d Infantry Regiment, 34th Infantry Division (patient of ward B-1); and Private First Class Ralph E. Perry (patient of ward S-15), another doughboy. A General Officer was a patient at the 33d Gen Hosp during May 1945; this was Brigadier General Robinson E. Duff, Assistant Division Commanding Officer, 10th Mountain Division.

In accordance with War Department general instructions, the necessary directions were prepared for Readjustment of personnel after V-E Day, whereby it was announced as early as 30 April 1945 that four (4) major requirements would be utilized: Length of Service – Overseas Service – Combat Service – and Parenthood. Enlisted Men with 100 points or over and not classed as essential, were to be sent home for discharge. The Army policy of releasing EM over 42 years of age was also in effect. Some members of the 33d reached remarkable scores such as Major Marion C. Stith (126 points); Private Albert Sanchez (117 points); 2d Lieutenant Alice H. Durant (83 points). The lowest points sofar were recorded with Private Kenneth L. Williams (11 points), and 2d Lieutenant Jane S. Calmont (7 points).

During the unit’s time in Livorno, wedding bells rang for another 6 Nurses, though the traditional rice and other celebrations were peacetime luxuries the men could not afford. Second Lieutenant Helen Brown, ANC, to Major Frank Knepper, AAF; First Lieutenant Helen Baniak, ANC, to First Lieutenant Donald Schallock, SC; First Lieutenant Mary Robertson, ANC, to Captain Howard E. Miller, Inf; First Lieutenant Madie Hill, ANC, to Captain John Bell, AAF; First Lieutenant Elizabeth F. Cowley, ANC, to Technician 4th Grade Leo M. Kearns, MC; and First Lieutenant Louise A. Ricks, ANC, to Captain John Mosher, Inf.

Softball Team of the 33d General Hospital, Livorno, Italy. The team won the American League Championship at Ft. Eustis, ZI. After arriving in Tunisia, the 33d team called themselves “The Dodgers” and while in Italy, they entered the PBS National League in Livorno, where they obtained the second place. From L to R: (front) T/4 Albert M. Pompa, Pfc Roy J. Weider, Pfc Herman C. Jasper, Pfc Milton W. Dehner, Sgt Thaddeus L. Kloc, T/5 Harry J. Leonard, Pvt John J. Wilkinson (back) Pfc Albert M. Wilson, Pfc Benedict M. Pesta, T/4 Jerome E. Platakis, Pfc Harry Dysert, Pfc Paul F. Ginsberg, Pfc Theodore J. Davis.

33d General Hospital – 1945 Statistics
Total Number of Physical Examinations
January – 1,174
February – 1,641
March – 1,560
April – 1,566
May – 795
June – NA
July – NA
Total Number of Vaccinations
January – 548
February – 26
March – 95
April – 17
May – 53
June – NA
July – NA
Total Number of Immunizations
January – 283
February – 334
March – 332
April – 83
May – 670
June – NA
July – NA
Total Number of Patient Treatments
January – 2,262
February – 2,195
March – 2,713
April – 2,365
May – 2,232
June – NA
July – NA

33d General Hospital – 1945 Statistics
Total Number of Admissions
January – 1,392 patients
February – 1,477 patients
March – 1,301 patients
April – 2,033 patients
May – 1,259 patients
June – NA
July – NA

View of the Physiotherapy Section of the 33d General Hospital, Livorno, Italy. PT personnel and patients at work.

Total Number of Dispositions
January – 871 patients
February – 666 patients
March – 773 patients
April – 896 patients
May – 1,315 patients
June – NA
July – NA

On 4 June 1945, 74 Privates gained a promotion to Private First Class. During the period end May – early June some Officers left the 33d for a transfer to other units. They included: Major John J. A. Lyons and Captain Ralph M. Myerson, both MC, who went to the 114th Station Hospital; and Captain Dossey H. McFadden, MC, and 2d Lieutenant Jack A. Creech, MAC, who were assigned to the 52d Station Hospital. It was also officially announced in June that Major Alice L. Spellman had recently been promoted to Lieutenant Colonel with the 33d Gen Hosp (she entered the Army 29 June 1942 and received both her 2d and 1st Lieutenant commissions simultaneously for excellent service –ed). Twenty-seven (27) EM recently left for the Zone of Interior, some on points and 8 on the new 40-year age ruling. Also during the month of June 1945, 25 ANC Officers and 1 male AGD Officer received promotions to 1st Lieutenant. Meanwhile a group of 10 Nurses was awaiting notification of transfer to a yet unspecified Station Hospital in Italy. Finally a total of 19 ANC Officers were effectively transferred, with 13 going to the 52d Station Hospital; 4 transferred to the 262d Station Hospital; and the remaining 2 assigned to the 94th Evacuation Hospital. Five (5) more Medical Officers, members of the 33d left the organization mid-June for other units. They  were: Captains William H. De Rouville and Newman V. Treger, who went to the 73d Station Hospital; Major John F. Filippone and Captain John J. Gamble who were transferred to the 60th Station Hospital; and Captain James H. Flynn, Jr. who was assigned to the 34th Field Hospital.

The second anniversary overseas was celebrated 7 July 1945 with a rousing beach party and picnic supper, followed by a special show written and produced by the EM at the Red Cross Auditorium, called “33ds-A-Poppin”, the organization’s second overseas anniversary was celebrated with a baseball game, a beach party, a buffet supper and a show produced by 33d personnel. The baseball game between the Ramblers and the 81st Station Hospital Bluestreaks was a no-hit affair. There were other games too, including a wheelbarrow race, a sad sack race, a pie-eating contest, culminating with a show written and produced by the Hospital personnel. The following week, a grand banquet and other festivities commemorating the 33d General’s third anniversary as a unit was feted on 15 July. The Hospital had now been situated in its present location longer than in any other throughout its career. Unfortunately Redeployment started lifting members, transferring them elsewhere and replacing them with others. On 25 June 1945 It was announced that the Alpini (Italian military personnel attached to the 33d General Hospital since Rome) would be relieved from service to the organization  (to be discharged from the Italian Army –ed). A stockade for German PWs, shortly to be sent to take over the job of the Alpini soldiers was nearing completion in order to be ready for 1 July. The enclosure (surrounded by barbed wire, two guard towers, floodlights, and armed guards)  was constructed largely by civilian labor under the direction of the Utilities Department to accommodate over 200 prisoners of war. A Quartermaster Service Company of the German Wehrmacht arrived 16 July and were set up in the new compound. The Enlisted PWs were to live in individual shelter tents while the Officers would occupy pyramidal tents. The stockade included shower facilities, a mess hall, and outside latrines. Armed guards were provided by a detachment of 23 Japanese-Americans (Nisei) of the 442d Infantry Regiment (Separate), temporarily assigned to the 33d. Meanwhile the postal authorities changed the organization’s APO from 424 to APO 782.

Medical Officers and Nurses continued to be transferred in out throughout July and August 1945, with personnel going to other units and new Officers, Nurses, and a Physical Therapist being assigned to the 33d Gen from the 81st Station Hospital, the 225th Station Hospital, and the 62d Signal Battalion. The Officers leaving were 1st Lieutenant Bernard D. Goldberg, transferred to the 103d Station Hospital; 1st Lieutenant Louis G. Rosenblatt, transferred to the 5th General Dispensary; Captain Frank R. Brown, transferred to the 182d Station Hospital; and 1st Lieutenants Mary B. Cullen, Margaret A. Galton, and Helen T. Lawrence, assigned to the 105th Station Hospital. A special announcement was made with regard to the appointment of Colonel Francis F. Harrison, MC as the Hospital’s new Commanding Officer, replacing Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, who returned to the United States.

Commanding Officers – 33d General Hospital
Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, MC – 15 July 1942 > 4 August 1945
Colonel Francis F. Harrison, MC – 6 August 1945 > 20 September 1945

After deciding to inactivate Category IV units in the Theater, PBS Hospitals started closing out rapidly. Some units sailed for the ZI for indirect Redeployment through the United States, while others were immediately transferred to the Pacific Theater. Many organizations assigned to PBS were disbanded on site. This was the case with the 33d General Hospital which was finally inactivated 20 September 1945. The official announcement was published in The Corpsman of Friday, 14 September 1945 (the LAST issue of the unit’s bulletin). On 4 September, the last patient (Pvt Joseph Palcisko, 7th Sta Hosp –ed) was admitted to the Hospital. He became the 32,914th patient to be treated during the unit’s existence. Five (5) Officers received the Bronze Star Medal for “meritorious achievement in connection with military operations in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations”. They included: Major William R. Ferguson, Major Wyland F. Leadbetter, Major Marion C. Stith, Captain Sigmund H. Smedal, and 1st Lieutenant Bernard D. Goldberg. Presentation of the BSM was made by Colonel Francis F. Harrison, MC, Commanding Officer, 33d General Hospital.

The ladies of the American Red Cross staff attached to the 33d General Hospital. From L to R: Miss Edabelle Hall, Miss Laura M. MacFarlane, Miss Mary B. Ratterman, and Miss Georgianna Taliaferro. A fifth person was added in July 1944; Miss Hazel Horne.

Personnel Roster:

Officers, Nurses and Civilian Personnel

Abrahams, Irving, Capt, SnC Hamilton, Caroline B, 1st Lt, ANC Nylen, Arthur H, Col, MC
Ames, Hazel, 1st Lt, ANC Harm, Gladys L, 1st Lt, ANC O’Brien, Edna P, 2d Lt, ANC
Armstrong, Helen S, ARC Harrison, Francis F, Col, MC Ostberg, Louise, ARC
Aylesworth, Marion L, 1st Lt, ANC Harvey, Lillian E, 2d Lt, ANC Paddock, Franklyn K, Capt, MC
Baker, Lilian N, Capt, ANC Harvey, Orpha, 1st Lt, ANC Parker, Geraldine E, 1st Lt, ANC
Baldwin, Geraldine, 1st Lt, ANC Hecker, Daniel, Capt, MC Patterson, Edith, ARC
Bannon, Mary P, 1st Lt, ANC Hellick, Mae B, 1st Lt, MDD Pavlak, Cecilia V, 1st Lt, ANC
Baum, Joyce I, 2d Lt, ANC Herrick, Louise, 1st Lt, ANC Phiney, William R, Maj. Protestant Chaplain, ChC
Bedell, Mary L, 2d Lt, ANC Hermann, Ruth, ARC Pillow, Bessie P, 1st Lt, ANC
Benge, Aileen B, 1st Lt, ANC Higbie, Erma R, 2d Lt, ANC Randels, Ivo G, 1st Lt, Protestant Chaplain, ChC
Benkowsky, Elizabeth H, 1st Lt, ANC Higgins, Virginia F, 1st Lt, ANC Ratterman, Mary B, ARC
Benson, Clarence R, 1st Lt, CoE Hodgson, Grace E, 1st Lt, ANC Raymond, Helen V, 1st Lt, ANC
Best, Willa G, 1st Lt, ANC Houff, Louis A, Maj, MC Reeves, Jeannette M, 1st Lt, ANC
Biezunski, Wanda E, 1st Lt, ANC Houghton, Margaret M, 1st Lt, ANC Rice, Jane M, 1st Lt, ANC
Bitzer, Elizabeth E, 1st Lt, MDD Humiston, Pauline, Capt, ANC Richardson, Samuel M, Capt, MC
Heading of "The Corpsman Thirty-Third General Hospital" official newspaper of the 33d General Hospital in Italy (this particular sample is Vol. 1, No. 19, dated Monday, May 28, 1945). First published in January 1945 during the Hospital's stay in Livorno, Italy, with the last edition published September 14, 1945.

Heading of “The Corpsman Thirty-Third General Hospital” official newspaper of the 33d General Hospital in Italy (this particular sample is Vol. 1, No. 19, dated Monday, May 28, 1945). First published in January 1945 during the Hospital’s stay in Livorno, Italy, with the last edition published September 14, 1945.

Black, Howard A., Capt, MC Hun, Henry H, Lt Col, MC Ricks, Louise A, 1st Lt, ANC
Booker, Frances B, 1st Lt, ANC Hunn, David E, Lt Col, MC Riefer, Harold E, Capt, MAC
Bottazzi, Edmond J, Capt, DC Jaquay, Bertha A, Maj, ANC Roblyer, Wilma L, 1st Lt, ANC
Brown, Duane F, 1st Lt, QMC Jolma, Lilja H, 1st Lt, ANC Rosebraugh, Rebecca C, 1st Lt, ANC
Brown, Frank R, Capt, MC Kaine, Emma V, 1st Lt, ANC Rosenblatt, Louis G, 1st Lt, DC
Butler, Florine E, 1st Lt, ANC Kaine, Virginia P, 1st Lt, ANC Ross, Alice C, 1st Lt, ANC
Campbell, Eldridge H Jr, Col, MC Kannette, Eunice, 2d Lt, ANC Rowe, Dorothy, ARC
Campbell, Mary E, ARC Kavanaugh, Helen P, 1st Lt, ANC Rozendaal, Hendrik M, Maj, MC
Carberry, John W, CWO Kelley, John R, Maj, MAC Rozmond, Helen V, 1st Lt, ANC
Caudle, Zelda, 1st Lt, ANC Kern, Anne C, 1st Lt, ANC Rucker, Margaret, 1st Lt, ANC
Cerat, Marguerite A, 1st Lt, ANC Knepper, Helen, 2d Lt, ANC Sackett, Nettie A, 1st Lt, ANC
Christman, Florence L, 1st Lt, ANC Knox, Agnes E, 1st Lt, ANC Sandt, Kathryn A, 1st Lt, ANC
Ciaccia, Charles N, Capt, MC Knudson, Pauline, 1st Lt, MDD Saunders, Helen R, 1st Lt, ANC
Clemente, Sally A, 1st Lt, ANC Kocik, Irma B, 1st Lt, ANC Schaefer, Esther R, 1st Lt, ANC
Cobley, Jean, 1st Lt, ANC Koechley, Robert H, Maj, DC Schallock, Helen, 1st Lt, ANC
Cochick, Madeleine D, 1st Lt, ANC Krepak, Harold H, 2d Lt, MAC Schnell, Bernice E, 2d Lt, ANC
Cowley, Elizabeth J, 1st Lt, ANC Krieger, Ernest L, Capt, MAC Singer, Milton, 1st Lt, MAC
Crecca, Joseph V, Capt, MC Labadia, Lena, 1st Lt, ANC Smedal, Sigmund H, Capt, MC
Creech, Jack A, 2d Lt, MAC Lawrence, Helen T, 1st Lt, PT Smith, Nancy T, 2d Lt, ANC
Crowdier, Robert M, Lt Col, MC Leadbetter, Wyland F, Maj, MC Smith, William B J, Maj, DC
Cullen, Mary B, 1st Lt, ANC Leitner, Anne D, 1st Lt, PT Smith, Zelda E, 1st Lt, ANC
De Rouville, William H, Capt, MC Luban, Jack, 1st Lt, MAC Spellman, Alice L, Lt Col, ANC
De Young, Gertrude, 2d Lt, ANC Lukonen, Sylvia M, 1st Lt, PT Stalls, June C, 2d Lt, ANC
Doane, Kathlyn E, 1st Lt, ANC Lyons, Gertrude A, 2d Lt, ANC Stamas, Stanley, 1st Lt, MAC
Doyle, Mildred F, 1st Lt, ANC Lyons, John J A, Maj, MC Stein, Arthur H, Maj, MC
Dunaway, Marian E, 2d Lt, ANC MacAulay, Mary H, 1st Lt, ANC Stith, Marion C, Maj, MAC
Durant, Alice H, 1st Lt, ANC MacFarlane, Laura M, ARC Sullivan, Dorothy, 1st Lt, ANC
Eilers, Helne B, 1st Lt, ANC MacMillan, Stuart F, Maj, MC Sullivan, Joseph D, Capt, MC
Everest, Ruth E., 1st Lt, ANC MacTavish, Irene M, 1st Lt, ANC Taliaferro, Georgianna, ARC
Farrell, Frances M, 1st Lt, ANC Mayfield, Morris H, 2d Lt, MAC Thatcher, Margaret K, 1st Lt, ANC
Fassett, Madeline J, 1st Lt, ANC McCall, Agnes O, 1st Lt, ANC Thompson, Bernice G, 2d Lt, ANC
Feinstein, George, Capt, DC McCall, Julia E, 1st Lt, ANC Tobin, Lucy A, 2d Lt, ANC
Ferguson, William R, Maj, MC McCalmont, Jane S, 1st Lt, ANC Tompkins, Victor N, Maj, MC
Filippone, John F, Maj, MC McDonough, Marjorie, 1st Lt, ANC Treger, Newman V, Capt, MC
Photo illustrating from L to R: Brigadier General Robinson E. Duff (Asst. DivIsion CG), Major General George P. Hays (Division CG), Brigadier David L. Ruffner (Division Artillery CG), all General Officers of the 10th Mountain Division, operating in Italy. BG Robinson E. Duff was a patient at the 33d General Hospital in May 1945 and had nothing but praise for the 33d. He left a special note on V-mail to the editor of "The Corpsman" commending the organization.

Photo illustrating from L to R: Brigadier General Robinson E. Duff (Asst. DivIsion CG), Major General George P. Hays (Division CG), Brigadier David L. Ruffner (Division Artillery CG), all General Officers of the 10th Mountain Division, operating in Italy. BG Robinson E. Duff was a patient at the 33d General Hospital in May 1945 and had nothing but praise for the 33d. He left a special note on V-mail to the editor of “The Corpsman” commending the organization.

Fischer, Doris M, 1st Lt, ANC McFadden, Dossey H, Capt, MC Tyrrell, Jane E, 1st Lt, ANC
Fradkin, Nathan F, Maj, MC McGrath, Frances V, 1st Lt, ANC Valachovic, Anna W, 2d Lt, ANC
Flynn, James H Jr, Capt, MC McMartin, Daniel M, Capt, MC Vavra, Dorothy A, 1st Lt, ANC
Gaasch, Vera, 1st Lt, MDD McIver, Monroe A, Maj, MC Volk, Benjamin M, Capt, MC
Galton, Margaret A, 1st Lt, ANC Miller, Howard E, Capt, Inf Volk, Mary J, 1st Lt, ANC
Gamble, John J, Capt, MC Miller, John K, Lt Col, MC Von Storch, Theodore J C, Lt Col, MC
Garrow, Katherine S, 1st Lt, ANC Miller, Mary, 1st Lt, ANC Wahonik, Josephine, 1st Lt, ANC
Getz, Ella E, 1st Lt, ANC Minor, Lavora M, 1st Lt, ANC Walter, Blanche M, 2d Lt, ANC
Geoly, Frank J, Capt, MC Mintz, Muriel J, 1st Lt, ANC Ward, Ferdinand J, 1st Lt, Catholic Chaplain, ChC
Gilmore, Donald H, 1st Lt, MAC Molloy, Kathryn E, 1st Lt, ANC Warner, Gertrude E, 2d Lt, ANC
Godsey, Alma B, 1st Lt, ANC Morrison, Nancy J, 2d Lt, ANC Weeks, Ellen T, 1st Lt, ANC
Goldberg, Bernard D, 1st Lt, MAC Moses, Catherine S, 1st Lt, ANC Whalen, Kathryn T, Capt, ANC
Goldstein, Gilbert, Capt, SnC Mosher, John F, Lt Col, MC Whelan, Nora M, 1st Lt, ANC
Gordinier, Hermon C, Lt Col, MC Mott, Walter C, Maj, MC Wilkins, Sarah E, 1st Lt, ANC
Gottschalk, Robert B, Capt, MC Moran, Mary C, 1st Lt, ANC Williams, Marjorie L, 1st Lt, ANC
Greene, Valentine, Capt, MAC Murphy, Rose C, 1st Lt, ANC Wilson, Edgar W, 1st Lt, AGD
Hagadorn, Helena, 1st Lt, ANC Myerson, Ralph M, Capt, MC Yerdon, Madoline E, 1st Lt, ANC
Hall, Edabelle, ARC Naumoff, Philip, Capt, MC Young, William E, 1st Lt, MAC

Enlisted Personnel

Alexander, Caras C, Pfc Hazzard, Donald R, Pfc Oldroyd, Thomas L, Cpl
Allen, Jack I, Pvt Healy, James C, S/Sgt O’Mahoney, Cornelius P, T/5
Allen, Robert W, Pfc Heaton, Paul C, T/3 O’Neill, James, T/5
Allen, Samuel J Jr, Pvt Heflin, Carroll W, Pvt O’Rourke, James D, Pvt
Ammann, Willam A, T/5 Heldman, Selli, Pfc Ortman, Harry B, Pfc
Amonett, William B, Pfc Henderson, Thomas L, T/3 Palmer, Geoge W, Sgt
Anderson, Alf H, Pfc Henry, Boyd M, S/Sgt Parents, Samuel, Pfc
Anderson, John, Pvt Henry, James E, Pvt Parris, David, Pvt
Andrews, John W Jr, T/5 Herbert, Henry M, Pfc Patfield, Maxwell J, Pfc
Aptel, Raymond S, T/5 Hernandez, Albert, T/4 Pautz, Gustave, Cpl
Arno, Paul A, T/5 Herring, Rufus M, Pvt Pauwels, Albert W, T/Sgt
Atkins, Hiram J, Pvt Herry, Raymond J, Pvt Payton, Alexander, T/4
Aylward, John R, Pfc Hihn, John B Jr, Pfc Peerce, James J, Pvt
Bagozzi, Edward E, Pvt Hink, Ernest A, Sgt Perkis, Saul, Pfc
Ballin, Kermit D, Pfc Hirko, John A, Pvt Perlitch, Fred, Pvt
Barbour, Fred C, T/4 Hoblock, Alexander, S/Sgt Perry, Donald, Pfc
Barker, Harold, Pfc Holland, Wilson H, Pfc Pesta, Benedict M, Pfc
Barnes, Edgar, Pfc Holmes, William E, Pfc Petersen, Walter, Pvt
Barnes, Richard H, Pfc Homer, Robert S P, Pfc Peterson, Joseph A, T/4
Bartee, Edward, Pfc Hopkins, Roy Jr, Pfc Petrides, William, Pfc
Bartz, Robert J, Pvt Hopkins, Roy L, Pvt Phenis, George M, Pfc
Beadle, Russel J, S/Sgt Hopper, Donald W, T/5 Phillips, Lewis G, Pfc
Beck, Donald L, T/5 Hornat, Charles, T/4 Pierce, Edmund C, T/5
Bentley, William N, T/4 Hostetler, George I, Pfc Pierce, James A, T/4
Berg, Neil P, Pfc Howard, Chester E, Pfc Pignatello, Joseph P, Pvt
Bergmann, Warren C, T/3 Hritz, George I, Sgt Pinson, Allen P, Pvt
Berkow, Milton J, T/4 Hudak, Joseph R, Pvt Piontka, John V, T/4
Berman, Harold, T/Sgt Hudson, William B, T/5 Pippert, Elmer E, T/5
Colonel Francis F. Harrison, new Commanding Officer, 33d General Hospital. He succeeded Colonel Arthur H. Nylen wo returned to the Zone of Interior in August 1945.

Colonel Francis F. Harrison, new Commanding Officer, 33d General Hospital. He succeeded Colonel Arthur H. Nylen wo returned to the Zone of Interior in August 1945.

Bernowski, Emil, Pfc Hummel, William A, Pfc Pizzuto, Sam, Pvt
Bidaman, William E, Sgt Hunter, Edgar T, T/5 Platakis, Jerome E, T/4
Bielot, Joseph J, Pfc Hurley, Randall J, Pvt Polly, Robert J, T/4
Birnbaum, Jacob, Pfc Hurst, W D, Pfc Pompa, Albert M, T/4
Blair, Willie H, Pvt Hurt, John R, T/4 Powers, Edward J, Sgt
Bland, Carlisle T, Pvt Hutton, Floyd H, Pvt Powers, John C, T/4
Blohm, Ferdinand A, T/4 Iannelli, Carmen Pvt Quaranta, Anthony E, T/4
Boll, Walter L, T/5 Jackson, Freddie J, T/5 Quartin, George S, T/4
Bosley, Amos W, T/5 James, Jessie, Pvt Quick, Algot V, Pfc
Boswell, Charles II, Cpl Jasper, Herman C, Pfc Raidy, William A, T/4
Bradshaw, Sherman, Pfc Jenkins, Raymond H, T/5 Rambo, Daniel L, Pfc
Braio, Angelo, Pfc Jennings, Francis A, Pvt Rambo, George, Pfc
Brodie, Samuel D, Pvt Jensen, Arnold R, Cpl Rathmel, Cloyce W, Pfc
Brown, Arthur S, Pfc Jensen, Bernard S, Cpl Ray, Ernest J, T/4
Brundige, John E, Pfc Johnson, Burnett L, T/5 Redlich, Otto E, Sgt
Brunette, James, Pvt Johnston, Robert M, T/4 Reed, Donald C Jr, Pfc
Bryfogle, Edward L, Pfc Johnston, Robert M, Cpl Reed, Harry C, Pfc
Buck, Robert J, T/5 Jones, Andrew, Pfc Remia, Joseph B, T/4
Buege, Marlon W, Pfc Jones, Julius T, Sgt Rhea, Clarence, Pvt
Buller, William L, Pfc Joyner, Henry W, T/5 Richards, Herbert L, Pfc
Bunch, Roy L Jr, T/4 Judd, Raymond S, T/3 Ricks, Jesse S, Sgt
Burke, Joseph M Jr, T/5 Julio, Frank J, Pfc Rinkert, Roy M, Pfc
Burkhardt, Russell, T/3 June, Yee Cheung, Pvt Rissman, Norman, T/5
Byron, Preston, Sgt Kalstein, Eugene, T/5 Roberti, Frank, T/5
Caldron, Louis A, T/5 Kasparek, Mike J, Pvt Roberts, Paul, T/4
Caldwell, Samuel F, T/5 Kavanaugh, John C, Pfc Robinson, James H, T/5
Cameron, Donald R, T/3 Kearns, Leo M, T/4 Rockvam, Jerome C, Pfc
Campbell, Manuel, T/5 Keeshan, Bernard A, T/5 Romito, Tom G, T/4
Campbell, William D, T/4 Keeshan, Francis J, T/5 Root, George C, Pvt
Canvin, John M, Cpl Keil, Edward W, T/5 Rosario, Pedro C, S/Sgt
Carbin, Oscar W, T/5 Kelly, Virgil W, T/4 Rose, Lawrence N, T/Sgt
Carlborg, Robert W, T/5 Kerr, Clyde M, Pfc Rosenberg, Irving, T/5
Carnavale, Frank, Pfc Kershaw, Leslie B, Pfc Rothman, Howard R, T/3
Carney, James W, Pvt Kio, Leigh H, S/Sgt Rupas, Menas G, S/Sgt
Carroll, Ambrose, T/4 Kirkeeng, Le Monte E, T/3 Rutan, Robert R, T/4
Castano, Samuel G, Pfc Kirsche, Robert, Pfc Ruttan, Alvin, T/4
Caulombe, Irving L, T/5 Klinefelter, Floyd, Pvt Ryan, Dennis L, Pfc
Cavallaro, Edward F, T/5 Kloc, Thaddeus L, Sgt Ryan, John J, Pfc
Chase, Robert M, T/5 Knapp, Charles R, T/4 Ryan, Lawrence A, Pfc
Cherven, James A, Sgt Knowlton, Herbert, Pvt Sanchez, Santiago Jr, Pvt
Chieco, Anthony M, Sgt Konecsni, Vincent J, Sgt Sangster, James E, Pvt
Childers, Quentin, Pfc Korba, Frank, Pvt Savage, Rudy C, Pvt
Chmero, George, T/4 Kovacs, Arthur J, T/4 Savino, Joseph P, T/5
Chupak, Theodore, Pfc Kraft, Stanley V, T/4 Schillen, Melvin H, T/5
Clark, Lawrence, T/5 Krauss, Randolph, T/5 Schlough, Theodore H Jr, Sgt
Clements, Walter O, T/4 Kuzminski, Kasmier H, Pfc Schmidt, Ralph H, Pfc
Clements, William C, Pvt Laborde, Lawrence C, Pvt Schneider, Edward, T/4
Cole, Bevley, Pfc Lacy, Robert L, Pvt Schrein, George J, Pfc
Colen, Gilbert J, Pfc Landrum, Luther, T/5 Schroeder, Joseph, Pfc
Collins, Edgel, T/5 Landsberger, A E, S/Sgt Schultsmeier, Lee, T/4
Command, Joseph, T/5 La Pallo, Daniel, Pvt Schumacher, Donald C, Pvt
Commons, W C Jr, Pfc La Porta, John N, Pvt Schwab, Vincent E, T/5
Conway, Richard, Pfc Lauber, William C, T/5 Seiffert, Eugene T, Pfc
Cooper, Evan, Pfc Layman, Edwy M, Pvt Shafranski, Leo K, Pvt
Cooper, Herman, Pfc Law, Andrew W, Pvt Shedd, Neal, Cpl
Cordell, Carl E, Cpl Lawrence, Leverett W, Pvt Shelton, James B, Pfc
Corrieri, Giuseppe R, Pfc Lawrence, Oscar D, Pvt Sherrard, Harold O, T/3
Cortazzo, Frank S, Sgt Lawrence, William T, Pfc Sides, Warren A, Pfc
Costello, Michael P, T/3 Lazzarini, Evo, Pfc Silvia, Virgilio, T/4
Coursen, Harry E Jr, Pfc Leahey, Philip J, Pvt Simons, Eli, Pvt
Cox, Edward L, Cpl Lederer, Joseph, Pvt Simonsic, Tony C, Sgt
Cramer, Charles T, Pfc Ledlow, Lewis B, Pvt Sipe, Melvin L, Pvt
Crone, Joseph P, T/5 Lee, Elmer V, Pfc Sirilla, Paul A, Pfc
Crouch, William, Sgt Legrand, Billy, Pvt Sitko, Charles J, T/5
Culicchia, Michael J, Pvt Leidle, Alvin O, Pfc Skolnik, Morris, Pvt
Damiano, Augustino J, Sgt Leland, Haaken E, Sgt Slagle, Allison V, T/5
Dampman, Harold E, Pfc Leonard, Harry J, T/5 Slater, Elmer D, Pvt
Daskou, John, Pfc Levi, Arthur A, Pvt Small, Peter B, Pfc
Davis, Frank Jr, T/5 Levine, Ben, T/5 Smilovici, Gustave, Sgt
Davis, Theodore J, Pfc Lewis, Albert A, T/4 Smith, Harold C, T/4
Dawson, Cecil R, Pvt Lidyette, George, Pfc Smolinski, Raymond J, Pvt
DeCarlo, Peter, T/Sgt Lindgbergh, Victor R, Pvt Snee, Donaldson B, T/4
Deglau, Darwin, Pfc Lindquist, Verner S, Pvt Somerville, Kermit, Pvt
Dehner, Milton W, Pfc Little, Frank L, T/4 Sopper, Alfred E, T/5
Dellinger, Anthony F, T/5 Little, George M, Pvt Sorrentino, Arthur A, Pfc
DeLong, George, T/5 Logan, Dwight M, Pfc Sparks, Fred B, Pfc
Dempsey, Clarence, Cpl Long, Earl C, Cpl Speier, Theodore A, T/4
Deschenes, Joseph L, Pfc Love, George, T/3 Spiegel, Norman, Pfc
Deveau, Ralph J, T/4 Lowry, Walter A, Pfc Spolsdoff, John A, Pfc
DiDio, Anthony J, Pfc Lueth, Wilfred J, T/5 Spraker, Frank W, T/3
Diersing, Philip T, T/Sgt Lundbye, John H Jr, T/4 Sprenkle, Donald M, Pvt
Dilliplane, James M, Pfc Luther, Philip M, T/3 Star, Clarence, Pfc
DiPiero, Dan J, Pfc Lyle, Lewis, Pfc Starr, Russell F, Pfc
Dixon, John J, Pfc Lyons, Stephen C, Pvt Statuto, Louis A, Pvt
Dolan, Joseph J, T/3 Maasch, Ernest R, Pfc Stavranakos, James, Pfc
Donato, Anthony G, T/4 MacDonald, Earl B, Pvt Stefanelli, Fabiop, Pvt
Doub, Landon A, Pvt Maczka, William J, Pfc Stefanou, Christy H, T/5
Drennan, Walter M, Pfc Maddin, Rolland W, T/5 Stein, Milton A, T/5
Drozdovich, Charles, Pvt Maddox, James C, Pfc Stenvold, Joseph M, Pfc
Duffy, Damian J, Pfc Magliano, Anthony J, Pvt Stransky, Frank C, Pfc
Duke, Lawton M, Pvt Maglio, Albert M, Pfc Strauss, Floyd C, T/4
Dysert, Harry, Pfc Majernik, Albert A, T/4 Strimonsky, Max, T/5
Eason, James O, T/4 Malczewski, Alexander, Pfc Strining, Henry P, T/5
Elliott , Guy O, Pfc Mallory, Robert H, Cpl Sturm, Norbert, T/3
Enck, William J, Pvt Manieri, Benjamin A, S/Sgt Stverak, George L, T/5
Evans, Jack M, Pvt Marchione, Joseph M, Pvt Supino, James J, T/5
Everhart, James A, T/5 Marcine, Daniel G, T/4 Sutton, Elmer J, T/5
Fairbrother, Robert M, Pfc Margarella, James A, Pfc Sutton, Nolan F, Pfc
Falacienski, Frank J, Pvt Marks, Grady C, Pfc Swenson, Marvin E, T/4
Falacienski, Henry J, Pvt Marquez, Leon J, Sgt Szkutak, Benny A, Pvt
Copy of Memorandum Letter No. 4, dated January 17, 1945, dealing with Battle Participation Awards related to the Italian Campaign.

Copy of Memorandum Letter No. 4, dated January 17, 1945, dealing with Battle Participation Awards related to the Italian Campaign.

Falls, John V, T/3 Mattie, Daniel W, T/4 Taylor, Henry R, Pfc
Faris, John T, T/5 Mayhew, William C, T/4 Taylor, Robert L, T/5
Feinberg, Max M, Pvt McCadden, Hugh L, T/Sgt Terrell, Philmore, Pvt
Fenner, Lester G, T/4 McCarthy, Charlie, Pfc Tomaselli, Cesare, Pvt
Fenton, Sidney T, S/Sgt McGrew, James, Pfc Tonkin, Edgar F, T/4
Ferguson, Ernest E, Pfc McGuire, Charles W, Cpl Torrey, Vernal, T/4
Ferrier, Martin L, Pfc McIntosh, Lloyd T, Pfc Townsend, Henry S, Pfc
Fideler, Walter, Pfc McManus, William J, Pfc Trevathan, Lucian H, Pfc
Fitzpatrick, Daniel J, T/4 McSwain, William T, Pvt Tufford, Floyd D, Pvt
Fleisher, Edward, T/4 Mead, Lonnie, T/5 Turnbull, John, Cpl
Foley, George J, Sgt Meegan, William T, T/4 Uscio, Joseph F, T/5
Francesco, Joseph, Pfc Meier, Willis R, T/4 Vanderhoff, Robert E, Pfc
Fraser, Aslatair M, Pfc Melton, Alvin E, Pfc Vaughan, Harry K, Pfc
Freeman, Harold N, Cpl Mennillo, Rinaldo S, T/4 Veorbish, Matthew B, Cpl
Fulmer, Albert D, Pfc Merlo, Nicholas, Pfc Voisin, Dudley R, Cpl
Gaines, James K, Pvt Merringer, Charles L, T/5 Vokac, James, Pfc
Garner, Harold G, Pfc Meserino, Carmine J, Pvt Von Burg, Walter B, Cpl
Garrison, Billy, S/Sgt Miller, Harold E, Cpl Wallack, Morton, Pfc
Gaxton, Albert A, Pvt Miller, Kenneth E, Cpl Walter, Lewis A, T/5
George, Newton M, Pvt Miller, Orville, Pfc Walters, Edward H, T/4
Gersco, Harry J, Pfc Miller, Pennelton G, Pfc Warren, Leo S, Pfc
Giaimo, Anthony J, Pfc Miller, Richard J, Pfc Warren, Raleigh, T/5
Gianakis, Alexander G, T/4 Miller, William H Jr, Sgt Warrington, Willard E, T/4
Gilbirds, John W, Pfc Miller, William H, Pfc Washburn, Charles, T/4
Gillum, Charles E, T/5 Mills, Ervin F, Pfc Watkins, Joseph E, Pfc
Ginman, Woodrow J, Pfc Mills, Von C, T/5 Watson, Samuel C, Pfc
Ginsberg, Paul F, Pfc Milonovich, Nick, S/Sgt Weaver, William N, T/4
Gizienski, Joseph T, S/Sgt Minnear, Norval B, Pvt Weider, Roy J, Pfc
Gomenginger, Theodore, T/5 Mitchell, Howard C, Pfc Wells, Charles P Jr, T/5
Gomez, Lawrence H, Pfc Mitchell, James R, Pvt Wertico, Tony, Sgt
Gonzalez, Jesus N, Pvt Mollin, Morris, Pfc Wessel, Alfred H, Pvt
Gordon, Leo, T/5 Montgomery, Andrew J, Pvt Wetenko, James P, T/5
Gorelick, Joseph, T/4 Montgomery, R A, Pvt Wheeler, William J, Pfc
Gorsage, George F, Pfc Morrison, Robert J, Pvt White, Carson S, S/Sgt
Gouveia, Anthony A, T/5 Moser, Michael J, Pvt Whitman, Reuben, T/5
Goyer, Leroy W, Pvt Moyer, John B, T/4 Wilken, Fred H, T/5
Grant, Marion W, Pfc Mueller, Roy W, Pvt Willett, Philip A, Pvt
Graves, Edwin L, Pvt Munz, Fred, Pvt Willis, John L, Pfc
Greathouse, Ted S, Pfc Murinson, Morris, Pfc Willis, Lewis W, T/5
Greene, Herman A, Pvt Murtha, John A, Pfc Wilson, Albert M, Pfc
Greenfield, Murl, Pvt Naigus, Irving, Pfc Wilson, Clyde L, T/4
Grewe, Lawrence, Pfc Naugle, Harold W, T/4 Wolfe, Francis J, Pfc
Grossi, Anthony J Jr, T/4 Nedeau, Ronald A, Sgt Wolff, Herman A, Pfc
Grundhofer, John W, T/3 Newcomb, Albert T, Pfc Wood, Howard B, Pfc
Guglielmo, Antonio J, T/4 Newton, Joseph G, Pfc Worsley, Earl M, Pfc
Gyuricsko, William, Pfc Nichols, Riley A, Pfc Wright, James C, T/5
Haar, Peter, Pfc Nichols, Wademan, Pfc Wynn, Frank T, Cpl
Haines, Robert E, T/5 Nuñez, Salvador G, Pfc Yankey, Arnold D, T/3
Hanson, Eugene, Pvt Nunnally, Arnold M, Pvt Yoder, Richard F, Pfc
Hargraves, Chesley, Pvt Obitko, George, T/4 Zappile, Joseph, T/3
Harrison, Richard L, T/5 O’Brien, Vincent J, 1st/Sgt Zealor, Martin E, Pfc
Haupt, Albert, Pfc O’Byrne, Stuart G, Cpl
Haygood, Weldon T, Pfc O’Dwyer, Edward M, Sgt

Remark: 384 additional Enlisted Men were reported to have at one time or another been connected with the 33d General Hospital during the period 1942-1945 (replacements/transfers).

Post Office and Post Exchange personnel of the 33d General Hospital. From L to R: (front) T/5 Robert W. Carlborg, T/5 Amos W. Bosley, Sgt George I. Hritz, Sgt Frank S. Cortazzo (back) Pfc Andrew Jones, T/4 Francis P. Ronaghan, T/5 Norman Rissman, Pfc William Whelan.

Awards:

The 33d General Hospital received a Unit Plaque with the Citation for Meritorious Service, ref. General Orders No. 21, Headquarters, Peninsular Base Section, MTOUSA (for superior performance of exceptionally difficult tasks and outstanding devotion to duty in the Peninsular Base Section (PBS) for the period 21 June 1944 to 20 September 1945).

Official awards were received for the Rome-Arno Campaign (period 22 January 1944 > 9 September 1944) and the North Apennines Campaign (period 10 September 1944 > 4 April 1945), represented by 2 miniature bronze stars on the EAME ribbon.

Detachment and Hospital Guards, 33d General Hospital. Note the white “HG” markings on the helmet liners. From L to R: (front) S/Sgt Russel J. Beadle, T/4 Robert M. Johnston, Cpl Walter B. Von Burg, Cpl Carl E. Cordell (back) Pfc Martin E. Zealor, Pfc George F. Gorsage, Pvt Lewis B. Ledlow, Pfc Joseph E. Watkins, Pfc Edgard Barnes, Pfc Walter D. Hurst, Pfc Ernest R. Maasch, Pfc Harry K. Vaughan, Pfc Riley A. Nichols, Pfc Gilbert J. Colen, Pvt Joseph P. Pignatello, Pvt Andrew J. Montgomery, Pvt Walter F. Workman.


The MRC staff are truly indebted to Ed Vlassich, for generously offering the book “APO 424” relating to the WW2 unit history of the 33d General Hospital. The book was published in Florence, Italy, in July 1945 and contains a lot of data and photographs, a worthy tribute to the men and women of the 33d GH who served their country in North Africa and Italy. This donation no doubt helped them edit a concise History of this Hospital unit. We are furthermore particularly thankful to Mike Manifor, who kindly provided us with copies of vintage documents pertaining to the 33d GH. Lt. Colonel M. Manifor’s wife inherited a lot of items from her Great-Grandfather, Colonel Arthur H. Nylen, Commanding Officer, 33d General Hospital, a Veteran of WWI and WWII.  (interesting to note is that “The Corpsman” dated 18 June 1945, announced that the new 33d Pictorial would go to Press. 1st Lieutenant Edgar W. Wilson, the co-editor of this illustrated history of the 33d Gen Hosp, returned from a conference with the printers in Florence, Italy, stating that definite arrangements as to the cost of  producing “APO 424” had been made. If all 800 copies, available by 1 July 1945, could be sold, the price would be US$ 10.00 a copy for anyone interested  –ed).

This page was printed from the WW2 US Medical Research Centre on 23rd October 2018 at 16:37.
Read more: https://www.med-dept.com/unit-histories/33d-general-hospital/